Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

19 The Emotions in Comparative Perspective1

Robert I. Levy University of California, San Diego

Different approaches to emotion suggest different kinds of questions. In addition to a consideration of a number of the issues which are introduced in the preliminary list of "Questions about Emotion," this chapter raises some additional questions: What is the relation of awareness, feeling and emotion (401-403)? What are the characteristics which might identify emotion as a sub-set of feeling (401-403)? Do different cultures define which feelings should be considered as emotions (400-410)? Might emotion be considered most centrally among humans, at least, as an indicator of the relation of "the self" to the social world (402-409)? Are there emotions which are emphasized in some cultures and not in others (403-404)? What are the differences in the types of knowing involved in the initial appraisal, on the one hand, and in cognitive evaluation in response to the "feeling of emotion", on the other, (404-409)? What is the cultural and cognitive function of the feeling phase of emotion; might it be considered as a trigger for the mobilization of culturally provided cognitive and definitional systems (406-407)? What are the limits to the cultural variability of the forms and types of specific emotions (409)? Why is emotional expression generally understandable across cultures (410-411)?

____________________
1
This paper is a somewhat revised version of an article, "On The Nature and Function of the Emotions: an Anthropological Perspective", which appeared in Social Science Information, 21, ⅘ ( 1982), pp. 511-528. Another version of it, further developing certain themes and emphasizing the relation of various emotions to the problem of the meaning of "culture," appears as a chapter "Emotion, Knowing and Culture," to appear in Culture and its Acquisition, edited by Robert LeVine and Richard Schweder, in preparation.

-397-

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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