Approaches to Emotion

By Klaus R. Scherer; Paul Ekman | Go to book overview

It was thought that aside from those paralinguistic signs of emotion universally produced by gross organismic influences on the production of speech, the other information about the relation of the speaker to his utterance was culturally coded in the same arbitrary way that, for example, "vache" had come to stand for a French cow. In a pioneering study of paralinguistic behavior, The First Five Minutes, Pittenger, Hockett, & Danehy ( 1960) asserted that paralinguistic habits "show variation from culture to culture and from region to region. They are as much the product of experience as are one's language habits [p. 185]. " But, in fact, in learning non-European languages a Westerner must painfully learn the arbitrarily coded semantics and syntax of the language, but has (in my experience) little trouble understanding the relational aspects of the language, its paralinguistic forms, once he has mastered its semantics and syntax. The reason for this is that such relational patterns are "analogically" coded, rather than "digitally" coded. In Peirce's language they are "iconic," resembling in some features their referent, rather than "symbolic," that is, arbitrarily related to their referent by convention. Thus, for example, once one knows what the standard intonation pattern of a declarative sentence is in a particular language, one can recognize the analogical meaning of an unresolved intonation which indicates a question, or the cautious articulation of the sentence that indicates doubt. It is possible that some of the universals in the expression of emotion in general, not only its vocal features, are "universal" in that they are analogically mediated (instead of by arbitrary code), and can be read by all humans, as well as by many other animals.


REFERENCES

Berlin, B. & Kay, P. Color terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.

Bilmes, J. & Boggs, S. "Language and communication: The foundations of culture". In Perspectives on cross-cultural psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Bruner, J., Goodnow, J., & Austin, G. A study of thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956.

Bruner, J., Oliver, R., & Greenfield, P. Studies in cognitive growth. New York: Wiley, 1966.

Ekman, P. "Biological and cultural contributions to body and facial movement". In J. Blacking (Ed.), The anthropology of the body, A.S.A. Monograph 15. London: Academic Press, 1977.

Ekman, P. "Biological and cultural contributions to body and facial movement in the expression of emotion". In A. O. Rorty (Ed.), Explaining emotion, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. (a)

Ekman, P. The face of man. Expressions of universal emotions. In a New Guinea Village. New York: Garland STPM Press, 1980. (b)

Goffman, E. Asylums. Garden City: Doubleday Anchor, 1961.

Grastyán, E. "Emotion", in The Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1974.

Izard, C. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Emotion and Emotion Communication. In H. Triandis (Ed.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1980. (a)

Izard, C. Emotions in personality and culture. Unpublished discussion of a panel on Emotions in Personality and Culture, American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1980. (b)

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Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Questions About Emotion: An Introduction 1
  • References 7
  • 1: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH 9
  • 1: Emotion: A Neurobehavioral Analysis 13
  • References 34
  • 2: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Emotion 39
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 54
  • 3: Contributions from Neuroendocrinology 59
  • References 70
  • II DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES 73
  • 5: The Organization of Emotional Development 109
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 127
  • References 127
  • 6: Emotions in Infancy: Regulators of Contact and Relationships with Persons 129
  • Acknowledgments 154
  • III PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ETHOLOGICAL APPROACHES 159
  • 7: Affect Theory 163
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 194
  • References 194
  • 8: Emotions: A General Psychoevolutionary Theory 197
  • References 218
  • 9: Cognition, Emotion and Motivation: The Doctoring of Humpty-Dumpty 221
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 234
  • 10: The Interaction of Affect and Cognition 239
  • 11: Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition 247
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 255
  • References 255
  • 12: On Primacy of Affect 259
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 268
  • 13: A Perceptual Motor Theory of Emotion of Emotion 271
  • References 289
  • 4: On the Nature and Function of Emotion: A Component Process Approach 293
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 315
  • References 316
  • 15: Expression and the Nature of Emotion 319
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT 340
  • 16: Animal Communication: Affect or Cognition? 345
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • References 363
  • IV SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLIGICAL APPROACHES 367
  • 17: Power, Status, and Emotions: A Sociological Contribution to A Psychophysiological Domain 369
  • References 381
  • 18: The Role of Emotion in Social Structure 385
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 396
  • References 396
  • 19: The Emotions in Comparative Perspective 397
  • References 411
  • Author Index 413
  • Subject Index 423
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