search for its meaning. This virtue, which is akin to the other virtue, dikaios, is also frequently spoken of in medical terms.
Rather than call this a recurrent metaphor, we may look at it as a paradigm, one that pervades the intellectual life of a society at a given period, like the paradigm of the clock in eighteenth-century European thought, or like the paradigm of the living organism in nineteenth-century thought. According to this early Greek model there are competing forces in this universe that reach a state of equilibrium. Each man, thing, institution, and nation has its assigned portion (moira), and when it goes beyond the assigned portion, whether intentionally or not, it disrupts the stability. Natural forces reestablish an equilibrium. In medicine it is the dominance of one humor that causes disease; healing comes from nature with the doctor's help. In physics this explains natural law; if it were other than how it should be nature would be disrupted and must restore the balance. In politics it is the competing claims that reach an accommodation in the well-ordered (eunomia) state; when the existing arrangement is upset there is stasis, civil unrest. Most generally in man's affairs this stability is justice: injustice is a disequilibrium brought about by excess; just as in disease there are symptoms that persist until the balance is restored, so injustice may flourish until an equilibrium is achieved.
Classical Authors with translations are cited from the Loeb Library Editions (unless otherwise stated). Pre-Socratic philosophers are quoted from Diehls and Kranz ( 1956).
Diehls Hermann, and Walter Kranz. ( 1956). Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. 8th ed., 3 vols. Berlin: Weidmann.
Edelstein L. ( 1967). Ancient Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Guthrie W. K. C. ( 1962). History of Greek Philosophy. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North Helen. ( 1966). Sophrosyne. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Vlastos Gregory. ( 1947). Equality and Justice in the Early Greek Cosmogonies. Classical Philology, 156-78.
Vlastos Gregory. ( 1953) Isonomia. American Journal of Philology, 337-68.