tenance of law and order, the punishment of the wicked, and the protection of the good.
Thus Kautilya through his Arthaśāstra has provided an integrated basis and working guidelines and a procedure for a society to prosper in both material as well as spiritual aspects. According to Kautilya, material and spiritual well-being are provided by the fourfold knowledge, namely, philosophy, the Vedas, economics, and the science of politics. Kautilya also advises that philosophy can be thought of as the lamp of all sciences, the means for all actions, and the support of all laws and duties.
The author thanks Mr. S. Sudarasanam, the Consul for Education and Culture at the Consulate General of India for his helpful discussions. Thanks are also due to Mrs. Gupta, librarian at the consulate; Professor J. Scow of the Department of Humanities at Stevens Institute of Technology ( N.J.), and Professor Irani of the Department of Philosophy at the City College of New York.
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