Finally, we note that the TS neurocognitive and psychosocial phenotypes include considerable variability. Not every proposita fits the mold suggested by group means and a search for "typical" or "classical" characteristics. Further investigations of this syndrome will likely help clarify the nature of TS development and the biological mechanisms altering developmental outcome, but are unlikely to uncover homogeneous characteristics of the psychological phenotype. Some women with TS will demonstrate strong math skills, easily develop friendships, and enjoy a satisfying heterosexual relationship. Sensitivity to psychological risks as well as individual variability are essential to counseling of TS girls and their parents, as well as to parents with a prenatally diagnosed fetus with X or partial X monosomy.
This study was supported, in part, by United States Public Health Services Grant 5R01-HD10032; Grant RR-69 from the General Clinical Research Centers Program of the Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health; and The Genetic Foundation.
Alexander D., Ehrhardt A., & Money J. ( 1966). "Defective figure drawing, geometric and human, in Turner's syndrome". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 142, 161.
Alexander D., Walker H. T., & Money J. ( 1964). "Studies in direction sense". Archives of General Psychiatry, 10, 337-339.
Baekgaard W., Nyborg H., & Nielsen J. ( 1978). "Neuroticism and extroversion in Turner's syndrome". Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 583-586.
Bender B., Linden M., & Robinson A. ( 1987). "Environment and developmental risk in children with sex chromosome abnormalities". Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 26, 499-503.
Berch D. B., & Kirkendall K. L. ( 1986, May). Spatial information processing in 45,X children. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia.
Berch D., & McCauley E. ( 1990). "Psychosocial functioning of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities". In C. S. Holmes (Ed.), Psychoneuroendocrinology: Brain, behavior, and hormonal interactions (pp. 164-183). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Christensen A. L., & Nielsen J. ( 1981). "Neuropsychological investigation in 17 women withTurner's syndrome"