considered it would seem that many of the special requirements listed there do carry with them some implication of managerial control by the customer, over certain aspects of the supplier's activities. For example the influence of multiple retail food stores on the allocation of even the largest food manufacturers' promotional expenditure between 'below-the-line activity' (including such items as premium selling, game promotions, incentive schemes, etc.) and media advertising through the introduction of Private Brands is a case in point. 32 The food manufacturers would very much prefer not to have to increase below-the-line expenditure but have been forced into this position by the economic power of the large multiple stores, and by their direct demands for increased contributions for such items as 'key money' which the manufacturers seem unable to resist.
To conclude this section, it would seem that there is some evidence that many suppliers in a variety of industries are finding it very difficult to maintain their managerial independence from large customers.
There does seem to be some evidence that what this paper has described as 'vertical quasi-integration' does exist. The importance of understanding the extent of such relationships lies not only in the need to understand more fully the effect of a single firm's collapse--as in the Rolls-Royce case--but also because it may represent a considerable extension of large firms' influence in the economy which needs to be considered on policy grounds. As Barnes has pointed out:
Some of the important consequences of bigness depend, not upon the power of certain large enterprises, but upon the relative place of large-scale business organization in the economy as a whole. The farther we move toward an economy of a few large business units, the less we can count upon the automatic competitive adjustments to harmonize production demand, prices, and costs. 33
Perhaps what is required is some measure of a firm's influence in the vertical plane so that as well as having indicators of a firm's influence within its own industry, some measure of a firm's influence in the economy as a whole is obtained. Perhaps some measure along the lines of Hirschman's linkage concept would provide an indication of the extent of a firm's relationship with supplying industries. 34 Finally it should be noted that, in considering the power of one organization over another in the vertical plane, examples have