Presidential Frontiers: Underexplored Issues in White House Politics

By Ryan J. Barilleaux | Go to book overview
35. Did she influence appointments/nominations?
36. Did she attend policy meetings?
37. Did she influence public policy?
38. Did she visit heads of state? (hostess role or for political role or for advocate role)
Advocate
39. Did she have an identifiable issue?
40. Did she lobby the president?
41. Did she lobby congress?

Other Interesting Activities


NOTES
1.
An effort was made to obtain the data collected by O'Connor et al. ( 1996) in an effort to corroborate the data collected for this chapter. One author stated that the data were not put into a comprehensive data set but rather were collected on individual worksheets for each First Lady. The authors were not able to pass along what they had compiled.
2.
Other scholars have statistically examined the variables that affect the type and level of political participation of women in general. Reece et al. ( 1983) use statistical analyses to build a predictive model of female political participation in campaign activities using variables such as mother's occupation, age, education, age of youngest child, and employment. Vicky Randall ( 1982) provides a summary of the hypotheses that have been tested by scholars over the years. The key variables that correlate with levels of activity are age ( Jacquette 1974), education ( Tedin et al. 1977), number of children ( Campbell et al. 1960; Lipset 1963; Pomper 1975), and employment outside the home ( Andersen 1975; Beckwith 1986).
3.
The terminology that will be used (active/passive, explicit/implicit) is not based on, or related to, James Barber's active/passive, positive/negative classification ( Barber 1992). I am seeking a different type of analysis that is rooted in the existing literature on First Ladies' role activity and am basing the classification on actions, not psychoanalysis.
4.
Psychology has given us a plethora of literature on birth order which discusses the effect of birth order on developing leaders and so on.
5.
The ages reported and used for analysis are the ages at which these women were first married (not necessarily to the president).
6.
Ages 25 to 34 = 55.7%; ages 35 to 44 = 65.7%; ages 45 to 54 = 69.2%; ages 55 to 64 = 71.4%; ages 65 to 74 = 71.8%; and 75-84 = 64.3%.
7.
When Larry King asked Hillary Clinton if she had changed the pattern for First Ladies, this was her response.

REFERENCES

Andersen Karen 1975. "Working Women and Political Participation, 1952-1972." American Journal of Political Science 19(3): 439-54.

Anderson Alice and Hadley Baxendale. 1992. Behind Every Successful President. New York: Shapol Sky Publishers.

-223-

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Presidential Frontiers: Underexplored Issues in White House Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Part I - The First Frontier: The Nature of the Office 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Normative Study of the Presidency 3
  • Notes 17
  • Chapter 2 - The President as Representative 23
  • Notes 34
  • References 35
  • Chapter 3 Washington And/Or Versailles: the White House as a Court Society 37
  • References 51
  • Chapter 4 - Electing Presidents and Other Potentates 53
  • Part II - New Insights on Power and Policy 77
  • Chapter 5 - The Overlooked Relevance of the Pardon Power 79
  • References 96
  • Chapter 6 - The Presidency and Social Policy 99
  • References 114
  • Chapter 7 - The Other Side of War: Presidential Peace Powers 119
  • References 133
  • Chapter 8 - The President and Federal Reserve Nominations 135
  • References 146
  • Part III - New Political and Cultural Frontiers 149
  • Chapter 9 - The Presidency as a Cultural Pulpit 151
  • References 175
  • Chapter 10 - The Other Side of Power: Who Is Left Out of Presidential Rhetoric? 179
  • References 190
  • Chapter 11 - First Partner: First Ladies and Their Roles 195
  • Appendix 221
  • Notes 223
  • References 223
  • Afterword 227
  • References 230
  • Index 231
  • About the Contributors 235
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