thinking on the subject of AD/HD; (2) provide an indication of the trends in current research; (3) correct misconceptions about the disorder; (4) facilitate mindful decision making on the part of educators; and (5) enable educators to communicate knowledgeably with parents and other professionals regarding AD/HD.
The conceptualization of AD/HD is evolving. Although a great deal of research has been conducted in the area of AD/HD over the years, there has not been a consistent definition of the disorder ( Barkley, 1990). For that reason some of the findings may be contradictory at this stage of development. Researchers can only report the results as they emerge, and the confusion will probably continue until there is a greater understanding of AD/HD. As with any scientific endeavor, much trial and error will no doubt precede illumination about the mechanisms at work in AD/HD.
Whenever research involves human subjects there are constraints on the nature of the studies that can be conducted. The majority of research related to AD/HD has been nonexperimental and therefore limited in the generalizations that can be made from the findings. In Appendix B, each study is identified as nonexperimental, quasi-experimental, and experimental to give the reader an indication of the types of studies being conducted and included for review. Definitions for nonexperimental, quasi-experimental, and experimental are provided in Appendix B. In addition, there are notations for studies that fall in other categories, including meta-analysis, systematic search of the literature, review of the literature, ethnography, and case studies.
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