Making Sense of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

By Carol R. Lensch | Go to book overview

Table 3.1 (continued)

Study Findings Implications
7. Comorbidity with
Oppositional
Defiance Disorder
(focus on parent-
child interactions)
· oppositional defiant
behaviors with AD/HD
compounds the disorder
· emphasizes value of high
interest academic tasks
for all children and
especially those with
AD/HD
8. Allergies and
AD/HD
· higher hyperactivity
rating for all younger
children
· higher incidence of AD/
HD in allergy group
· awareness of possible co-
occurrence of AD/HD
with allergies
· higher than average co-
occurrence of AD/HD in
this group
9. School-based
prevention
program with
focus on Conduct
Disorder
· 2/3 of disruptive
students met AD/HD
criteria
· high comorbidity of
Conduct Disorder and
Oppositional Defiant
Disorder with AD/HD
· emphasizes importance
of early identification
and intervention as
prevention

for students with AD/HD. Although no one would question the need for additional research on comorbidity, enough information already exists for us to make wiser decisions in our classrooms. In addition, knowledge of risk factors and predictors can be used to enhance our ability to prevent future academic and behavioral problems in our classrooms by providing early intervention.


NOTES
1.
Since this review was conducted on literature from over a 15 year period, the definitions and terms may vary. In order to maintain the integrity of the original studies, the terms in this review are consistent with those sources. Therefore, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) may be used instead of AD/HD, and the reader is reminded that the defining characteristics may vary somewhat depending on the date of the studies.
2.
Risk factors have been defined in previous chapters. Some examples are maternal smoking during pregnancy, family history of AD/HD and other psychiatric disorders, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, and low-birth-weight.

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association (APA). ( 1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

August G., Realmuto G., MacDonald A. W. III, Nugent S., & Crosby R. ( 1996). Prevalence of AD/HD and comorbid disorders among elementary school

-45-

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