Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States

By Jamshid A. Momeni | Go to book overview

barriers to black achievement in the United States. Beyond these barriers, our results indicate that black families who do experience any hard earned socioeconomic gains face further hurdles in trying to incorporate these gains into their standard of living. For most families, housing is the most conspicuous form of consumption and the clearest opportunity for investment. The cumulative constraints facing blacks in the housing market therefore constitute a serious impediment to their participation in the mainstream of American society.


Notes
1.
Those living in housing provided free by a relative are young single persons, almost all between the ages of 18 and 25 years, living with their parents. We exclude these individuals from the analysis.
2.
Kain and Quigley (b) attempt to avoid this difficulty with annual earnings by introducing a measure of "permanent" income, which they construct by averaging the annual income of the head of household, within levels of education. Thus defined, permanent income becomes a crude approximation of socioeconomic status. Our use of a direct indicator of the latter identifies the permanent component of status more satisfactorily than does Kain and Quigley's empirical formulation of permanent income.
3.
Those reporting one or both parents as head(s) of household are already excluded from the analysis for the reason given in note 1.
4.
We chose these measures of household composition after experimenting with a variety of alternatives, on the grounds that (a) they are simplest to interpret, and (b) they provide the most precise estimates. For example, we found no evidence to warrant further distinctions according to marital status (widowed, divorced, etc.), or the exact number of children. Our three measures of household composition reflect the essence of Kain and Quigley's eleven "life cycle" variables (b, 212-26) while avoiding the unnecessary complexity and redundancy that these variables introduce (e.g., between the number of persons and the number of children in the household).
5.
For a comparison of ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood logit estimates, see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson (chap. 7).
6.
Birnbaum and Weston have also questioned Kain and Quigley's results on the grounds that measures of assets should be included as explanatory variables. Their estimates indicate that if assets are included in the model, then the effect of race on home ownership is considerably weakened. However, the introduction of assets variables into a single equation model that seeks to account for the probability of home ownership creates a severe simultaneity problem (since "wealth" appears on both sides of the equation). As Birnbaum and Weston themselves partially acknowledge, this undermines their results substantially (see also, Kain and Quigley, b).
7.
The logit model takes the following form:
1n P(ϒ = 1)/(ϒ = 2) = β0X0 + β1X1 + ... + β7X7 + β8X8
where X8 equals 1 if the respondent is black, and 0 if the respondent is white, and the remaining seven independent variables are those identified in Table 3.1. To

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Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Ethnic Studies Series Editor: Leonard W. Doob ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figure and Tables ix
  • Foreword xv
  • Series Foreword xvii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction xxi
  • References xxiv
  • 1: A Historical Review of Changes in Public Housing Policies and Their Impacts on Minorities 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • References 15
  • 2: Racial Inequalities in Housing: An Examination of Recent Trends 19
  • Introduction 19
  • Notes 36
  • Acknowledgments 36
  • References 37
  • 3: Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership 39
  • Notes 50
  • References 51
  • 4: Blacks and the American Dream of Housing 53
  • References 65
  • 5: Housing Policy and Suburbanization: An Analysis of the Changing Quality and Quantity of Black Housing in Suburbia since 1950 69
  • Introduction 69
  • Conclusion 83
  • References 85
  • 6: The Housing Conditions of Black Female-headed Households: A Comparative Analysis 89
  • Acknowledgments 107
  • References 108
  • 7: Accessibility to Housing: Differential Residential Segregation for Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians 109
  • Introduction 109
  • References 125
  • 8: Su casa no es mi casa: Hispanic Housing Conditions in Contemporary America, 1949- 1980 127
  • Notes 143
  • References 144
  • 9: American Indian Housing: An Overview of Conditions and Public Policy 147
  • Acknowledgments 174
  • References 174
  • 10: Housing Problems of Asian Americans 177
  • References 193
  • 11: Minority Housing Needs and Civil Rights Enforcement 195
  • Introduction 195
  • Conclusions 209
  • Notes 211
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • Selected Bibliography 217
  • Index 221
  • About the Contributors 223
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