Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States

By Jamshid A. Momeni | Go to book overview

Table 11.8
Mean and Median Amounts of Monetary Relief: Pre- and Post-Fair Housing Assistance Program (FHAP)
Program Phase Weighted Mean* Median*
Pre-FHAP (N = 58) $530 $388
Post-FHAP (N = 41) $982 $500
*Amounts are in 1983 constant dollars, adjusted by the Consumer Price Index.
Source: Case Record Abstract Forms.

constant dollars, rose from $388 to $500 dollars from the pre- to post- FHAP periods.

During this same time period, the performance of HUD fair housing enforcement offices also improved. In four out of ten HUD regional offices studied, the percent of cases resolved in favor of the person complaining increased from 25 percent before 1980 to 43 percent after 1980. Cases in which some monetary settlement or a housing unit were provided also increased over the same time period from 44 to 60 percent. The amount of monetary awards increased in constant dollars from roughly $400 to over $1,300 during the period before and after 1980.

There has, therefore, been a measurable increase in the effectiveness of fair housing enforcement agencies over the last five years. Critics may argue that the increases are not great enough or that the sample of agencies missed many more lackluster agencies whose procedures are less ineffective. Still others may feel that federal courts provide better relief in terms of both injunctions and monetary settlements. Despite such arguments, it is clear that the capacity of federal, state, and local agencies to enforce fair housing laws has measurably increased.


Conclusions

Minority households continue to experience substantial levels of housing deprivation, segregation, and discrimination. Their housing conditions, although gradually improving in physical condition and the extent of crowding, are increasingly affected by the higher costs of renting or purchasing a home. Minorities in search of decent housing will have to pay more, as well as risk experiencing either subtle or direct forms of discrimination, in order to find a home comparable to that of whites. All too often the act of discrimination will remain unfelt and undetected. Different or fewer apartments and homes are shown to minorities but not to whites.

There is nothing especially new in this account of housing deprivation and discrimination. Economic factors and discrimination have long been

-209-

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Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Ethnic Studies Series Editor: Leonard W. Doob ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figure and Tables ix
  • Foreword xv
  • Series Foreword xvii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction xxi
  • References xxiv
  • 1: A Historical Review of Changes in Public Housing Policies and Their Impacts on Minorities 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • References 15
  • 2: Racial Inequalities in Housing: An Examination of Recent Trends 19
  • Introduction 19
  • Notes 36
  • Acknowledgments 36
  • References 37
  • 3: Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership 39
  • Notes 50
  • References 51
  • 4: Blacks and the American Dream of Housing 53
  • References 65
  • 5: Housing Policy and Suburbanization: An Analysis of the Changing Quality and Quantity of Black Housing in Suburbia since 1950 69
  • Introduction 69
  • Conclusion 83
  • References 85
  • 6: The Housing Conditions of Black Female-headed Households: A Comparative Analysis 89
  • Acknowledgments 107
  • References 108
  • 7: Accessibility to Housing: Differential Residential Segregation for Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians 109
  • Introduction 109
  • References 125
  • 8: Su casa no es mi casa: Hispanic Housing Conditions in Contemporary America, 1949- 1980 127
  • Notes 143
  • References 144
  • 9: American Indian Housing: An Overview of Conditions and Public Policy 147
  • Acknowledgments 174
  • References 174
  • 10: Housing Problems of Asian Americans 177
  • References 193
  • 11: Minority Housing Needs and Civil Rights Enforcement 195
  • Introduction 195
  • Conclusions 209
  • Notes 211
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • Selected Bibliography 217
  • Index 221
  • About the Contributors 223
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