Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States

By Jamshid A. Momeni | Go to book overview

of a broad agenda of civil rights policy changes. National and local fair housing organizations have been impacted by changing popular "tastes" regarding racial equity as well as by reductions in funding for "discretionary" items such as civil rights enforcement. The National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing and National Neighbors, two of the major, national fair housing organizations, are both experiencing severe financial problems which limit their effectiveness in pressing for legislative or funding reforms.

To federalize or not the solution to minority housing problems is not an ideological contest likely to be won by any side. External events, outside the control of the leadership of the minority communities, appear likely to overwhelm most federal domestic policy options. Civil rights and the housing conditions of blacks and Hispanics are concerns which only influence the margins of current Congressional and Executive Branch planning. Only a substantial increase in organized support and lobbying for a broad range of civil rights protections is likely to achieve any credibility and impact. Such an agenda will, in the short run, probably only hold its own against forces aimed at reducing civil rights guarantees. It seems wiser, however, to pursue a more offensive rather than a defensive policy in order to secure as much leverage and credibility for future battles.


Notes
1.
These data are drawn from the American Housing Survey (AHS) for which the most current data are for 1983. AHS data have been gathered by the Bureau of the Census since 1973 ( Goering, 1980). Research using Census and AHS data for 1960 and 1977 reveals a larger increase in the rate of homeownership for blacks than for whites ( Bianchi, Farley, and Spain, 1982: 47).
2.
This measure of housing needs focuses on the conditions affecting existing housing and its occupants. It does not include consideration of the "need" for additional housing to accommodate the demographic increase in household formation. The latter issue has been considered elsewhere ( Weicher, Yap, and Jones, 1981).
3.
In 1980, the national median rent-to-income ratio was 27 percent. Families in the $15,000 to $20,000 range paid 20 percent of their income for rent. However, the average rent burden for households earning below $3,000 was 60 percent. The burden was 47 percent for poor households earning between $3,000 and $7,000 ( Welfeld and Carmel, 1984: 298).
4.
There is a progressive decline in inadequate housing with rising income ( Bianchi , Farley, and Spain, 1982: 45; Apgar, 1985).
5.
The inadequacy of housing conditions for Hispanics as a group masks considerable variation among the various subgroups which comprise "Hispanics." Cubans, for example, live in housing with fewer problems than Puerto Ricans ( Office of Policy Development , 1980; Juarez, 1977).

-211-

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Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Ethnic Studies Series Editor: Leonard W. Doob ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figure and Tables ix
  • Foreword xv
  • Series Foreword xvii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction xxi
  • References xxiv
  • 1: A Historical Review of Changes in Public Housing Policies and Their Impacts on Minorities 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Conclusion 14
  • References 15
  • 2: Racial Inequalities in Housing: An Examination of Recent Trends 19
  • Introduction 19
  • Notes 36
  • Acknowledgments 36
  • References 37
  • 3: Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership 39
  • Notes 50
  • References 51
  • 4: Blacks and the American Dream of Housing 53
  • References 65
  • 5: Housing Policy and Suburbanization: An Analysis of the Changing Quality and Quantity of Black Housing in Suburbia since 1950 69
  • Introduction 69
  • Conclusion 83
  • References 85
  • 6: The Housing Conditions of Black Female-headed Households: A Comparative Analysis 89
  • Acknowledgments 107
  • References 108
  • 7: Accessibility to Housing: Differential Residential Segregation for Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians 109
  • Introduction 109
  • References 125
  • 8: Su casa no es mi casa: Hispanic Housing Conditions in Contemporary America, 1949- 1980 127
  • Notes 143
  • References 144
  • 9: American Indian Housing: An Overview of Conditions and Public Policy 147
  • Acknowledgments 174
  • References 174
  • 10: Housing Problems of Asian Americans 177
  • References 193
  • 11: Minority Housing Needs and Civil Rights Enforcement 195
  • Introduction 195
  • Conclusions 209
  • Notes 211
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • Selected Bibliography 217
  • Index 221
  • About the Contributors 223
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