A Multinational Study of Local Energy Conservation Schemes
George Gaskell, Bernward Joerges, Peter Ester, Cees Midden, Eric Monnier, and Harald Mueller
This chapter summarizes the findings of a four year, multinational project into consumer energy conservation policies and programs. On the basis of extensive preliminary studies of the existing situation in the eight participating countries, empirical case studies of selected local energy conservation programs were performed in Britain, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.
These evaluation studies combined a "top down" policy analytic approach with a "bottom-up" approach, the analysis of the consumer context, and program impacts. It is shown that local programs have a unique ability to achieve both energy conservation policy, and almost by implication environmental policy, and social policy objectives. However some necessary qualifications are discussed; in particular, in the absence of support from local authorities or fuel utilities, local programs lead a precarious existence.
Finally, recommendations for the implementation
This study was supported by the Directorate General for Environment and Consumer Affairs and Nuclear Safety of the Commission of the European Communities under contract V/83/662.