tax, or a graduated employment/welfare grant incentive plan. Kristol's belief in 1971 was borne out by the research of 1977 and 1978 showing that "the existence of a liberal welfare program . . . [was] responsible to a considerable extent for family disorganization."
If the Irish immigrants in the 19th century had had something comparable to our present welfare system [or a guaranteed annual income?] there would have been a "welfare explosion" then, and a sharp increase in Irish family dissolution, too. . . . Welfare robs [the family] of its function. . . . Welfare robs the head of the household of his economic function . . . and (makes) him a "superfluous" man. Welfare competes with his usually low earning ability--the more generous the welfare program, the worse [the husband] makes out in this competition [with welfare] (p. 242).
One wonders how many white middle-class families would survive if mother and children were guaranteed the father's income or more without the father's presence? And how many fathers would persist at their not-always-interesting jobs? (p. 242).
Kristol sees welfare as a vicious circle in which the best of intentions merge into the worst of results. Welfare and its residual clients operate in a dreary symbiotic interaction that can be resolved only by restating the limited purposes of welfare and by reinstituting social services that lead to rehabilitation. If not in one generation, this change should come within two or three. This type of reorganization cannot be expected to come quickly. Only if the general public attains an improved understanding of residual poverty and its problems will a decision for change come.
Aaron Henry J. Why Is Welfare So Hard to Reform? Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1973.
Albrecht James W. "Negative Income Taxation and Divorce in SIME/ DIME," Journal of the Institute for Socio-Economic Studies, 4( 3):75- 82, Autumn 1979.
American Conservative Union. "An Alternative Approach to Welfare Reform." Memorandum to Congress, September 1969.
Anderson Martin. Welfare: The Political Economy of Welfare Reform in the U.S. Menlo Park, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1978.
Ball Robert M. "Principles of Representative Payment," Oasis, August 1967.
Bell Carolyn Shaw. "The Carter Bill--Is It Welfare Reform?" Journal of the Institute for Socio-Economic Studies, 3( 2):9-19, 1978.
Bishop John. Jobs, Cash Transfer and Marital Instability: A Review of the Evidence. Special Report No. 19. Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1977.