Across the Boundaries of Belief: Contemporary Issues in the Anthropology of Religion

By Morton Klass; Maxine Weisgrau | Go to book overview
Ünal families for their hospitality and friendship over the twenty years that have passed since I first met them in a village in southwestern Turkey. Friends in both places also graciously gave permission for their photographs to be used in this article. The useful and stimulating comments by colleagues Deniz Kandiyoti of London, Çiǧdem Kaǧitçibaşi of Istanbui, and Glenn Yocum of Whittier College, who read earlier drafts of this manuscript, are also gratefully acknowledged.
2.
For example, Toprak refers to attempts in the 70s by a "new elite" within the now-disbanded neo-Islamic National Salvation Party to create "indigenous styles for Muslim women" and to legitimize "traditional Islamic" dress ( 1981: 292).
3.
"Jews" were more identifiably separate in terms of history, culture, and origin, since many had come to Turkey as refugees from one of the successive waves of Christian persecution. In contrast, whether Christian or Muslim, an "Arab" was someone whose "mother tongue" was Arabic.
4.
I am grateful to Dr. Ciǧdem Kaǧitçibaşi of Boǧaziçi University in Istanbul for independent comments suggesting similar parallels between the U.S. and Turkey. In response to an earlier draft of this paper which made no mention of these parallels, she pointed out several similarities. She commented that, after several extended periods of study and research in the U.S., including the 1983-1984 academic year in the U.S. as a Fulbright scholar and travelling rather extensively as a speaker throughout the country, she was impressed by the elements of "religious revival" she observed. She noted particularly the role of religion as a means of coping with stress in modern societies. As she phrased it, "the more individual (communal?) function of religion as a relief from stress is probably operating in the face of unsettling social change and mobility. This [Turkish incident] is not that different from people seeking refuge in evangelistic groups, various messianic cults, even encounter groups, etc. in the U.S. During my travels in the U.S. and Canada throughout last year and earlier, I was surprised at the extent to which such religious revival was televised, especially in the Midwest on Sunday mornings. I also remember being especially struck by a large number of young people who were called Youth for Christ who had their convention at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, in 1979."
5.
Toprak's careful study ( 1984) of the brief history of the neo-Islamic National Salvation Party between 1972 and 1980 suggests similar forces at work which contributed both to the birth and the demise of the party.

References

Abadan-Unat Nermin 1963--Social change and Turkish women. Ankara. Turkey: Ankara Üniversitesi Basimevi.

Afetinan A. 1962--The emanicipation of the Turkish woman. The Netherlands: UNESCO.

Balfour Patrick ( Lord Kinross) 1964--Ataturk: A biography of Mustafa Kemal, father of modern Turkey. New York: William Morrow and Company.

Berkez Niyazi 1964--The development of secularism in Turkey. Montreal: McGill University Press.

El-Guindi Fadwa 1981--"Veiling Infitah with Muslim ethic: Egypt's contemporary Islamic Movement". Social Problems 28: 465-485.

Lewis Bernard 1952 "--Islamic revival in Turkey". International Affairs 28: 38-48.

----- 1968--The emergence of modern Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.

-301-

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