Ünal families for their hospitality and friendship over the twenty years that have passed
since I first met them in a village in southwestern Turkey. Friends in both places also graciously gave permission for their photographs to be used in this article. The useful and
stimulating comments by colleagues Deniz Kandiyoti of London, Çiǧdem Kaǧitçibaşi of Istanbui, and Glenn Yocum of Whittier College, who read earlier drafts of this manuscript,
are also gratefully acknowledged.
For example, Toprak refers to attempts in the 70s by a "new elite" within the now-disbanded neo-Islamic National Salvation Party to create "indigenous styles for Muslim
women" and to legitimize "traditional Islamic" dress ( 1981: 292).
"Jews" were more identifiably separate in terms of history, culture, and origin, since
many had come to Turkey as refugees from one of the successive waves of Christian persecution. In contrast, whether Christian or Muslim, an "Arab" was someone whose "mother
tongue" was Arabic.
I am grateful to Dr. Ciǧdem Kaǧitçibaşi of Boǧaziçi University in Istanbul for independent comments suggesting similar parallels between the U.S. and Turkey. In response to an
earlier draft of this paper which made no mention of these parallels, she pointed out several
similarities. She commented that, after several extended periods of study and research in the U.S., including the 1983-1984 academic year in the U.S. as a Fulbright scholar and travelling
rather extensively as a speaker throughout the country, she was impressed by the elements of
"religious revival" she observed. She noted particularly the role of religion as a means of coping with stress in modern societies. As she phrased it, "the more individual (communal?)
function of religion as a relief from stress is probably operating in the face of unsettling social change and mobility. This [Turkish incident] is not that different from people seeking
refuge in evangelistic groups, various messianic cults, even encounter groups, etc. in the U.S.
During my travels in the U.S. and Canada throughout last year and earlier, I was surprised at
the extent to which such religious revival was televised, especially in the Midwest on Sunday
mornings. I also remember being especially struck by a large number of young people who
were called Youth for Christ who had their convention at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, in 1979."
Toprak's careful study ( 1984) of the brief history of the neo-Islamic National Salvation Party between 1972 and 1980 suggests similar forces at work which contributed both
to the birth and the demise of the party.
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