The Western Dani number approximately 150,000 people and constitute the largest society indigenous to Irian Jaya. They inhabit the Central and Western Highlands, from the northern tip of the Grand Valley to the Ilaga valley, situated halfway between Wamena and Enarotali at Lake Paniai. There are several ethnographies available of the various groups of Dani; fieldwork was (or is) carried out by O'Brien in the Konda valley near Karubaga, by Ploeg among the Wanggulam close to Bokondini, by Hayward in the Mulia-Ilu area of the Nogolo river system, and by Larson in the upper Ilaga valley. There is no ethnographic account of the North Balim Dani (Tiom, Pit River, Makki or Danime).
The Hupla people are a small society of about 2500 people, living in the Kaio and Woso (where Soba is located) valleys and on the west flank of the Kwik valley, just north of the Balim gorge. Their language is closely related to Lower Grand Valley Dani (Hetigima). They form the last confederacy on the (south) east side of the Balim river of the series of confederacies found in the Grand Valley.
Most of the participants in the West Melanesia movement are originally from Ambai, a small island off Yapen island in the Cenderawasih (Geelvink) Bay.
Ellenberger J. D. 1983. A Century of 'Hai' Movements among the Damal of Irian Jaya. In W. Flannery (ed.), Religious Movements in Melanesia, pp. 104-110. Goroka: Melanesian Institute.