Varieties of Memory and Consciousness: Essays in Honour of Endel Tulving

By Henry L. Roediger III; Fergus I. M. Craik et al. | Go to book overview

increased blood glucose levels. It certainly makes sense biologically that emotionally significant events should be associated with enhanced memory for their time and place of occurrence ( Brown & Kulik, 1977).


CONCLUSIONS

An understanding of how the stream of conscious experience is organized into events and episodes is central to our understanding of encoding and retrieval processes in episodic memory ( Tulving, 1972, 1983). Features of objects and actions are presumably integrated through co-occurrence and mental contiguity; in turn, events are integrated with other events as a function of their similarity and relatedness in terms of an appropriate semantics. The integration of events with the ongoing spatio-temporal context is crucial for episodic remembering-- as opposed to more primitive feelings of familiarity. It has been suggested that the processes of attention (or "processing resources") play an important role in this integration of events with their contexts; in addition, the experiment with Michael Rubin suggests that emotionality may further enhance such integration. Finally, the separation of resource and subject/material factors suggested by the results of the experiments with Ruth Ann Sanders and with Robin and Lorna Morris may lead to the development of more complete theories of episodic integration.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The research reported in this chapter was supported by Grant A8261 from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


REFERENCES

Brown R., & Kulik J. ( 1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition, 5, 73-99.

Craik F. I. M., & Byrd M. ( 1982). Aging and cognitive deficits: The role of attentional resources. In F. I. M. Craik & S. E. Trehub (Eds.,), Aging and cognitive processes (pp. 191-211). New York: Plenum Press.

Frankenhaeuser M. ( 1975). Sympathetic-adrenamedullary activity, behaviour, and the psychosocial environment. In P. H. Venables & M. J. Christie (Eds.), Research in psychophysiology (pp. 71-94). London: Wiley.

Friendly M., Franklin P. E., Hoffman D., & Rubin D. C. ( 1982). The Toronto word pool: Norms for imagery, concreteness, orthographic variables, and grammatical usage for 1,080 words. Behavior Research Methods & Instumentation, 14, 375-399.

Gold P. E. ( 1987). Sweet memories. American Scientist, 75, 151-155.

Huppert F. A., & Piercy M. ( 1976). Recognition memory in amnesic patients: Effect of temporal context and familiarity of material. Cortex, 12, 3-20.

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