the past, the experience of affect, and the attribution of responsibility in social settings. To understand people's awareness of remembering, we need to address issues beyond the scope of traditional memory theories. The focus of Tulving and others on data from amnesics is informative for speculations about the basis for awareness of the past; however, we doubt that any single anatomical structure that is responsible for adding awareness of the past to other functions of memory will ever be found. Even if such a structure were found, its functions could not be understood in the absence of a satisfactory analysis of the processes that underlie the subjective experience of remembering.
This research was supported by a National Science and Engineering Research Council Grant to Larry Jacoby, and a Medical Research Council Fellowship to Jane Dywan. The authors express appreciation to Ann Hollingshead for her assistance collecting and analyzing data, and to Fergus Craik, Eric Eich, and Michael Ross for their comments on an earlier version of this chapter.
Alba J. N., & Hasher L. ( 1983). "Is memory schematic"? Psychological Bulletin, 2, 203-231.
Atkinson R. C., & Juola J. F. ( 1974). "Search and decision processes in recognition memory". In D. H. Krantz , R. C. Atkinson, R. D. Luce, & P. Suppes (Eds.), Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology, Vol. 1: Learning, memory and thinking. San Francisco, California: Freeman.
Baddeley A. ( 1982a). "Domains of recollection". Psychological Review, 89, 708-729.
Baddeley A. ( 1982b). Amnesia: A minimal model and an interpretation. In L. Cermak (Ed.), Human memory and amnesia (pp. 305-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bower G. H. ( 1981). "Mood and memory". American Psychologist, 36, 129-148.
Bowers P. G. ( 1978). "Hypnotizability, creativity and the role of effortless experiencing". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 184-202.
Bowers K. S., & Hilgard E. ( 1986). "Some complexities in understanding memory". In H. M. Pettinati (Ed.), Hypnosis and memory (pp. 3-18). New York: Guilford Press.
Broadbent D. E., & Broadbent M. H. P. ( 1975). "Some further data concerning the word frequency effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 297-308.
Brunswik E. ( 1956). Perception and representative design of psychological experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cermak L. S. ( 1984). "The episodic/semantic distinction in amnesia". In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.), The neuropsychology of memory (pp. 55-62). New York: The Guilford Press.
Cohen N. J., & Squire L. R. ( 1980). "Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that". Science, 210, 207-210.
Cole W. G., & Loftus E. F. ( 1979). "Incorporating new information into memory". American Journal of Psychology, 92(3), 413-425.
Craik F. I. M., & Byrd M. ( 1982). "Aging and cognitive deficits: The role of attentional resources". In F. I. M. Craik & S. E. Trehub (Eds.), Aging and cognitive processes. New York: Plenum.