DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Melissa C. Hulse
Performance and Safety Sciences, Inc.
Thomas A. Dingus
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
To alleviate traffic congestion and to more effectively use existing transportation resources, a major national and international effort is currently made to integrate knowledge on driver behavior and decision making into the design of Advanced Traveler Information systems (ATISs). In-vehicle ATISs are often viewed as one of the cornerstones of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), also known as an Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS), which involves the use of sensor, computer, communication (radio-optical), and control technologies for regulating the flow of vehicles along roads and highways. In this chapter, we provide an overview of several existing ITSs, including a broad overview of the technologies associated with the design of an ITS. These systems are described in more detail in subsequent chapters along with the human factors issues associated with their design and use.
Techniques to reduce urban congestion have typically focused on capital-intensive strategies such as the development of new roads or light rail to increase the system capacity. However, an alternative strategy, which is less capital-intensive, calls for designing an information system based specifically on the traffic information needs of private and commercial drivers. Along these lines, a number of major new efforts to alleviate traffic congestion have centered around the development of transportation information