PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
John D. Lee Barry H. Kantowitz Battelle Memorial Institute
This chapter describes some cognitive and perceptual characteristics of drivers that may influence the success of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Cognitive characteristics imply constraints on what information drivers require and how that information can be best displayed. Thus, the cognitive characteristics of drivers help to define information requirements and formats for display and control. Although cognitive characteristics help to define design requirements, they are not the only factors involved. In fact, driver behavior and information needs also may be understood by a close examination of specific driver tasks and by a functional description of the driver's interaction with the ITS. In other words, multiple factors such as ITS functional capabilities, environmental factors, and driver characteristics provide the context for driver interaction with ITS and play an important role in determining information that should be presented to drivers. Figure 2.1 shows that an ITS design depends on considering each of these elements.
Driver behavior and the associated design implications depend then on understanding both the context in which the driver operates and driver cognitive characteristics. For example, the cognitive characteristics of private and commercial drivers may not be dramatically different, but their information requirements and interaction with ITS components will certainly differ. This chapter examines driver cognitive characteristics to identify driver information requirements and the form that this information should take. This review does not attempt to completely specify driver information require-