HUMAN FACTORS DESIGN ISSUES FOR CRASH AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS
Thomas A. Dingus Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Steven K. Jahns University of Iowa
Avraham D. Horowitz General Motors Research and Design Center
Ronald Knipling National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The "electronics revolution" of the past two decades has changed motor vehicles and driving in a myriad of ways. Advanced electronics have been applied to many diverse elements of the automobile, including engine control, transmissions, and instrumentation. Inexpensive and miniaturized application-specific integrated circuits can perform multiple system functions, including sensing, intelligent processing, and communications. Another wave of change to driving is coming as this technology, along with new driver interface designs and vehicle control systems, is applied to collision avoidance. Applications such as forward-path obstacle/headway detection, blind-spot monitoring, driver performance--alertness monitoring, tire--road friction monitoring, and intelligent cruise control are becoming available and affordable. Moreover, the programmable nature of integrated circuits means that system functionality can be refined and adapted to specific circumstances or needs, such as specific vehicle types, environmental conditions, or driver performance capabilities.