HUMAN FACTORS PARTICIPATION IN LARGE-SCALE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DESIGN AND EVALUATION
Rebecca N. Fleischman
General Motors Research and Development Center
Thomas A. Dingus
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
There is historical precedence for the participation and role of human factors in the design and evaluation of large-scale systems. Primary examples include the human factors specialists who have had significant roles in the testing of a wide variety of space and military systems dating back to the late 1940s. The evaluation methodologies conducted for these systems were driven by standards that required verification of the safety and efficiency with which a set of required tasks could be performed. This verification included equipment design, logistics support, training, personnel selection, time-line adherence, procedures, and personnel safety among others.
Although there is long-ranging experience in the human factors community on which to draw for effective design and evaluation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), this experience has been underutilized. Historically, there have been no established standards for the evaluation of ITS. Rather, ITS systems, evaluation plans, and deployments have been developed and conducted by separate contractors as part of transportation demonstration programs. The system designers and evaluation contractors typically have not emphasized the role of humans in these systems. Although the experience of early tests has been used somewhat, the ITS evaluations have differed substantially in their scope, objectives, and methodologies, making transfer of learning a challenge. To improve this situation, the Federal Highway