Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of natural and artificial intelligence. In this intellectual domain, the nature of cognition is examined by the methods of experimental cognitive psychology and the theoretical models of computational psychology.
Chapter I is concerned with general aspects of the sciences of cognition. The nature and objectives of artificial intelligence, symbolic and connectionist paradigms, the architecture of cognition, and the characteristics of a general theory of intelligence are discussed in depth.
Chapter 2 examines theory and research in human reasoning and reasoning systems. Experimental research in deductive and inductive reasoning, the nature of artificial intelligence reasoning systems, nonmonotonic and commonsense reasoning, and general types of reasoning in artificial intelligence are examined.
Chapter 3 is concerned with the nature of human problem solving and problem-solving systems. Problem representation methods and their duplication by artificial intelligence are discussed at length. Characteristics and limitations of problem-solving systems in the natural sciences are presented.
In Chapter 4, concepts and research in human learning and learning systems are discussed. Computer simulation of learning processes, learning and a general theory of intelligence, and inductive learning systems are examined.
In Chapter 5, the nature of human expertise and expert systems is discussed. Major characteristics of expertise including deep knowledge, reasoning strategies, and pattern recognition are described and exemplified in research concerned with medical expertise. Fundamentals of expert systems are described and exemplified by systems in chemistry, electronics, and medicine.
In the sixth and concluding chapter, the nature of intelligence and intelligence systems are examined. The physical-symbol system hypothesis and its results are analyzed. An artificial intelligent system that emulates the cogni-