The Sciences of Cognition
There are two aspects to the scientific study of cognition: experimental psychology and artificial intelligence. The former studies the cognitive processes that constitute human intelligence, the latter the cognition of intelligent systems. These approaches to cognition are examined in this book as unified cognitive science.
The field of artificial intelligence, a specialized discipline within general computer science, is directed toward the continuous augmentation of computer intelligence. The augmentation of intelligence in computers may be achieved by two general methods or by a combination of the methods.
In the first general method, the computer models the cognitive processes of human intellect. Augmentation of computer intelligence through this method requires the continuous expansion of reliable and valid knowledge concerning human cognitive processes.
In the second general method, the intelligence of the computer models formal logical structures and processes. Augmentation of computer intelligence through this method requires the continuous expansion of reliable and valid knowledge concerning the theory and application of systems of logic and coordinated sets of programming languages.
These two general methods of augmenting computer intelligence depend for their physical realization on the continuous expansion of knowledge in the field of computer engineering. Improvements in computer engineering design and materials (e.g., from serial to parallel processing, from electronic to optical circuitry) optimize the results of the application of the two general methods of artificial intelligence.