Human Expertise and Expert Systems
This chapter is divided into two complementary sections, the first concerned with the cognition of human expertise and the second devoted to its emulation by expert systems.
In the first section, cognitive stages in the development of expertise are discussed. Research in the differential cognitive processes of experts and novices is examined.
In the second section, the attempt to model general human intelligence is discussed. The abandonment of this endeavor and its replacement by computer models that behave intelligently in a specific knowledge domain is critically analyzed. The fundamental concepts of knowledge-based expert systems are examined. The major characteristics and performance of the MYCIN expert system are described. Examples of expert systems in chemistry, electronics, and medicine are provided.
In a closing commentary to the chapter, the heuristic reasoning of expert systems is contrasted with conventional algorithmic programming.
The acquisition and performance of complex cognitive skills that characterizes professional education and practice in the arts and sciences appear to occur at three conceptual stages of development: (a) the cognitive stage, (b) the associative stage, and (c) the autonomous stage ( Chi, Glaser, and Farr, 1988; Fits and Posner, 1967).
The three levels of expertise development can be exemplified by graduate