German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945

By Klemens Von Klemperer | Go to book overview

encouragement. Ultimately, in order to break out of its 'vast gaol', as Wilhelm Leuschner characterized the Nazi state, the German Opposition had to plunge into the open sea of foreign countries to be recognized, to explain itself, and to be listened to.


CHAPTER 1
1.
Information from Eberhard Bethge.
2.
"'Ludwig Beck in der Mittwochs-Gesellschaft', BA/K, Spranger/I, repr. as 'Generaloberst Beck in der Mittwochs-Gesellschaft'", Universitas: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft, Kunst und Literatur, II ( 1956), 1/2, 183-93.
3.
Franz Halder in "'Protokoll aus der Verhandlung Halder [vor der] Spruchkammer X München [15.-21. September 1948]'", mimeographed [ Munich, 1948], 67, quoted in Peter Hoffmann , "'Ludwig Beck: Loyalty and Resistance'", Central European History, 14 ( Dec. 1981), 348; see also Erich Kosthorst, Die deutsche Opposition gegen Hitler zwischen Polenund Frankreichfeldzug ( 2nd ed., Bonn, 1955), 52; and Ritter, Carl Goerdeler, 146.
4.
See the testimony of Lt.-Col. Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz of the Abwehr, 11 Aug. 1952: 'For everyone it was a foregone conclusion that Colonel General Beck was the sovereign (Oberhaupt)', Kurt Sendtner, "'Die deutsche Militäropposition im ersten Kriegsjahr'", in Vollmacht des Gewissens, ed. Europäische Publikation e. V. ( Frankfurt/M., 1960), i. 437. Also: 'in dem Kreis Oster-Dohnanyi-Müller war einfach Beck der Souverän'; 'Protokoll der Besprechung mit Frau v. Dohnanyi am I. Dezember 1952', 10; IfZ, ZS 603.
5.
Dr Hans Walz, 'Meine Mitarbeit an der Aktion Goerdeler' ( Nov. 1945), BA/K, Gerhard Ritter, 131.
6.
Erich Kosthorst, "'Carl Friedrich Goerdeler'", in Rudolf Lill and Heinrich Oberreuter (eds.), 20. Juli: Portraits des Widerstands (Düsseldorf, 1984), 122.
7.
'Unsere Idee' (Memorandum written by Goerdeler in gaol, Nov. 1944); BA/K, Goerdeler 26.
8.
Kosthorst, 'Carl Friedrich Goerdeler', 126.
9.
Lord Vansittart, The Mist Procession: The Autobiography of Lord Vansittart ( London, 1958) 513.
10.
Minutes by Mr G. P. Young (Central Department), 15 Feb. 1940 to Sir R. Campbell, Paris to Sir A. Cadogan, 8 Feb. 1940, FO 371/24387/C 2339/6/18.
11.
All four Cabinet lists (the ones of Jan. and Aug. 1943 and of Jan. and July 1944 name Hassell for this post; the one of August 1943 also ex-Chancellor Heinrich Brüning and the one of July 1944 also Friedrich Werner Graf von der Schulenburg, Nazi Germany's last Ambassador to Moscow); See Hoffmann, History, 367. In the very last days before 20 July 1944, however, Beck and Goerdeler seemed to have tipped the scales in favour of Schulenburg in desperate expectation of some settlement with the East.
12.
The first edition of the diaries, hastily put together by von Hassell's widow, appeared in 1946 in Switzerland ( Ulrich von Hassell, Vom Anderen Deutschland: Aus den nachgelassenen Tagebüchern 1938-1944, Zurich, 1946) and appeared in English translation as The Von Hassell Diaries 1938-1944: The Story of the Forces against Hitler inside Germany as recorded by Ambassador Ulrich von Hassell, a Leader of the Movement ( New York, 1947). Meanwhile an enlarged and revised scholarly edition, arranged by the historian Friedrich Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen has appeared in the Federal Republic of Germany: Die Hassell- Tagebücher 1938-1944: Aufzeichnungen vom anderen Deutschland ( Berlin, 1988). In the passages of this book the quotations from the diary will be taken as a rule from the new edition; whenever possible the quotations in English will be taken from the American edition.
13.
Entry of 22 Oct. 1939, ibid. 131; italics in the original.
14.
See Klaus Scholder (ed.), Die Mittwochs-Gesellschaft: Protokolle aus dem geistigen Deutschland 1932 bis 1944 ( Berlin, 1982); see also Paul Fechter, Menschen und Zeiten: Begegnungen aus fünf Jahrzehnten ( Berlin, 1949), 365-417.
15.
Ludwig Beck, 'Die Lehre vom totalen Krieg (eine kritische Auseinandersetzung)' ( 17 June 1942) in Scholder (ed.), Die Mittwochs-Gesellschaft, 292-4; see also Nicholas Reynolds,

-65-

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German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • List of Illustrations xiv
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 1
  • Introduction 13
  • I - Resistance and Exile 19
  • CHAPTER 1 65
  • 2 - Thinking for the British Empire? 82
  • CHAPTER 2 134
  • 3 - 'Make a Revolution in Germany for the German People'? 154
  • CHAPTER 3 198
  • 4 - Widerstand and the Forging of the Grand Alliance 217
  • CHAPTER 4 250
  • 5 - Ecumenical Dialogue or 'the War Behind the War' 264
  • CHAPTER 5 298
  • 6 - The Vision and the Mirage 315
  • CHAPTER 6 396
  • Conclusion 432
  • Conclusion 440
  • Bibliography 442
  • Index 473
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