Peace research is a scholarly pursuit concerned with the causes of war and the conditions of peace. Peace science, or polemology, or "Friedenswissenschaft", is a problem-oriented branch of scholarship. The regular occurrence of war is a social problem. Peace researchers presume that more knowledge about the causes of war and about the conditions under which peace can be maintained will contribute to more rational behaviour in international relations, and thus contribute to solving this social problem.
Peace research emerged from anxiety rather than curiosity. It is a branch of the social sciences born in the atomic era. The introduction of nuclear weapons brought danger to the world surpassing anything mankind had encountered previously. Awareness of the extreme danger has generated the peace research movement throughout the world. When nuclear weapons made war unbearable, means had to be discovered to eliminate such a confrontation. The spreading interest in peace research sprang from an urge to contribute to more rational foreign policies and more peaceful international relations, through better insight into the causes of war and the conditions of peace.
The theory of international relations is a well established branch of scholarship. It originated after the First World War, which showed the need for a clearer perception of international relations. This fairly new field of research emphasized state sovereignty and state power. Government-sponsored "societies for international relations" appeared in almost all European countries. Like the League of Nations, their point of departure was the____________________