International Organizations: A Comparative Approach

By Werner J. Feld; Robert S. Jordan et al. | Go to book overview

4 DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES AND POLICYMAKING SCOPE

The creation of IGO institutions and the employment of civil servants in these institutions have as their major purpose accomplishing the tasks for which the IGOs were created. The attainment of this goal requires national and multinational decision making to form the basis of IGO policies and implementing actions. For a comparative analysis and evaluation of IGO decision- and policymaking processes, we will examine in the following pages the voting systems used in IGOs; the scope and level of decisions authorized in the constituent treaties, including a taxonomy of decisions; changes in the locus of decision making and their implications; special strategies used in IGO decision making, such as package deals and bloc voting; and the implementation and evaluation of decisions.

In most cases, the IGO decision-making process consists of many activities and actions prior to actually reaching a particular decision. Other activities and measures follow in order to implement that decision. Hence, David Easton's input-output model can serve as useful background for understanding the political environment that is likely to surround IGO decision making. 1 Easton suggests that, just as in national decision making, it is reasonable to expect a variety of efforts by interested parties to influence the shape of the decisions that are eventually made in IGO institutions. These efforts may consist of logrolling, corridor deals, and the many other activities normally associated with inputs into political decisions.


VOTING SYSTEMS

Majority Rule

There is a clear historical trend away from the rule of unanimity to majority rule in decisions made within IGOs. In the course of drafting the

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