# Nominating Presidents: An Evaluation of Voters and Primaries

By John G. Geer | Go to book overview

Appendix I
Definition of Variables Used
in Explaining Turnout
 1 Turnout: The data on turnout were arrived at by dividing the number of citizens who voted in a primary by the number of registered party voters in that state. The data on the number of voters are from Presidential Elections Since 1796, 3d and 4th editions, published by Congressional Quarterly. Data on registered party voters are from Ranney ( 1977), The Republican Almanac, published by the Republican National Committee, and Rhodes Cook ( 1987) Race for the Presidency, published by Congressional Quarterly. 2 Education: These data are the proportion of citizens in each state who completed at least four years of high school. The source is the Statistical Abstract of the United States, published by the Bureau of the Census. 3 Media Attention: Aldrich ( 1980) ranks the news media coverage of the states for 1976 (see his Appendix, Table 13). Robinson and Sheehan ( 1983) provide information on the CBS and UPI coverage of the primaries for 1980 (see pp. 176-77). 1 take the 1980 data and rank the states by amount of media coverage, as Aldrich ( 1980) did. The variable ranges from a value of 1, the least covered, to 15, the most covered. 4 Campaign Spending: Campaign spending is measured by dividing the dollars spent by all candidates in a party's primary by the number of registered party voters in that state, then taking the logs of this measure. The logged value is a much stronger explanatory variable than the linear value, because campaign spending brings diminishing returns. Money is very important at the outset, but once a candidate's name is known, additional funds have less and less effect. Data on spending are from the Federal Election Commission. 5 Competitiveness: Competitiveness is arrived at by subtracting the proportion of the vote for the first-place candidate from that for the second-place candidate. This value is then subtracted from 100. This formula is used for the actual outcome in primaries and the delegate totals of the candidates. For data on the

-139-

If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes

#### Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

#### Cited page

Nominating Presidents: An Evaluation of Voters and Primaries

• Recent Titles in Contributions in Political Science ii
• Title Page iii
• Contents vii
• Figures and Tables ix
• Foreword xi
• Preface xv
• 1 - Introduction 1
• Notes 11
• 2 - The Representativeness of Voters in Presidential Primaries 15
• 3 - Participation in Presidential Primaries 31
• 4 - Information and Voters Presidential Primaries 45
• 4 Information and Voters Presidential Primaries 57
• 5 - Voting in Presidential Primaries 63
• Notes 84
• 6 - The Media and Voters in Presidential Primaries 89
• Notes 103
• 7 - A Few Rules of the Game 105
• Conclusion 120
• Notes 120
• 8 - A Proposal for Reform 125
• Notes 136
• Appendix I Definition of Variables Used in Explaining Turnout 139
• Appendix II Description of Survey Questions 141
• Appendix III The Coding of the Open-Ended Comments 145
• Bibliography 147
• Index 155
Settings

#### Settings

Typeface
Text size Reset View mode
Search within

Look up

#### Look up a word

• Dictionary
• Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
• Bookmarks
• Highlights & Notes
• Citations
/ 166

### How to highlight and cite specific passages

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

## Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

## Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.