such things as the oil price shocks and increases in government regulations. In Chapter 5, unemployment insurance and other social welfare programs that may increase the NAIRU are analyzed. In Chapter 6, the effect unions have on wages and fringe benefits is examined. Other analysts have argued that unions have significantly increased the NAIRU in other countries. What about the United States? In Chapter 7, an examination is made of the effect unions have had on productivity growth and, more important, the effect current U.S. labor law has had on productivity growth. Chapter 8 takes a more general look at productivity growth and the NAIRU. Chapter 9 concludes with a summary and review. Each of the chapters presents a few public policy ideas that may help the United States to reduce its NAIRU.