Special Education in Latin America: Experiences and Issues

By Alfredo J. Artiles; Daniel P. Hallahan | Go to book overview
of such a complex debate in the near future, we opt to use "Third World," "underdeveloped," and "developing" countries interchangeably.
2.
We are aware that the identification of mildly retarded individuals also entails an ambiguous process. In fact, it has been an area of controversy for many years, particularly when sociocultural variables are considered in the identification of culturally diverse students. However, the existence of quantitative parameters for the diagnosis of this condition facilitates the legitimation of the labeling process.

REFERENCES

Adams D. ( 1993, Jan.). Defining educational quality (IEQ Publication no. 1: Biennial Report, Improving Educational Quality Project). Arlington, VA: Institute for International Research.

Ainscow M. ( 1994). Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO.

Artiles A. J. ( 1992). Teacher thinking and teacher effectiveness during second-grade reading instruction in inner city schools in Guatemala City: An exploratory study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Bennett N. ( 1993). How can schooling help improve the lives of the poorest? The need for radical reform. In H. M. Levin & M. E. Lockheed (Eds.), Effective schools in developing countries (pp. 41-51). Washington, DC: Falmer Press.

Brolin D. ( 1986). Life-centered career education: A competency-based approach. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

Csapo M. ( 1993). Special education in crisis. International Journal of Special Education, 8, 201-208.

Dever R. ( 1989) A taxonomy of community living skills. Exceptional Children, 55, 395-404.

The disabled: Better data for better programmes. ( 1990, March). DTCD Newsletter, 3( 1),3.

Dunn L. M. ( 1968). Special education for the mildly retarded: Is much of it justifiable? Exceptional Children, 23, 5-21.

Eisemon T. O. ( 1987). Benefitting from basic education in developing countries: A review of research on the external efficiency of educational investments (Special Studies in Comparative Education, No. 20). Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo, Comparative Education Center.

Eisemon T. O., Schwille J., Prouty R., Ukobizoba F., Kana D., & Manirabona G. ( 1993). Providing quality education when resources are scarce: Strategies for increasing primary school effectiveness in Burundi. In H. M. Levin & M. E. Lockheed (Eds.), Effective schools in developing countries (pp. 130- 157). Washington, DC: Falmer Press.

Fuchs D., & Fuchs L. S. ( 1994). Inclusive schools movement and the radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60, 294-309.

Fuller B., & Clarke P. ( 1994). Raising school effects while ignoring culture? Local conditions and the influence of classroom tools, rules, and pedagogy. Review of Educational Research, 64, 119-157.

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