Special Education in Latin America: Experiences and Issues

By Alfredo J. Artiles; Daniel P. Hallahan | Go to book overview

for the development of special education in Latin America if we want to prevent the systemic and conceptual balkanization of the field.


NOTE
1.
Coombs and Ahmed ( 1974) (as cited in Labelle & Sylvester, 1990, p. 141) distinguish between informal, nonformal, and formal education as follows: Informal education is "seen on a continuum as the lifelong process by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skills, and insights from daily experiences and exposure to the environment." Nonformal education is defined as "any organized, systematic educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular subgroups in the population, adults as well as children." Finally, formal education is the "institutionalized, chronologically graded and hierarchically structured educational system spanning lower primary school and the upper reaches of the university."

REFERENCES

Ainscow M. ( 1990). "Special needs in the classroom: The development of a teacher education resource pack". International Journal of Special Education, 5, 13-19.

Ainscow M. ( 1994). Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO.

Anderson M. B. ( 1988). Improving access to schooling in the Third World: An overview (Bridges Research Report Series No. 1). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Anzalone S. ( 1991). "Educational technology and the improvement of general education in developing countries". In M. E. Lockheed, J. Middleton, & G. S. Nettleton (Eds.), Educational technology: Sustainable and effective use (Education and Employment Background Paper PHREE/91/32). Washington, DC: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department.

Aptekar L. ( 1994). "Street children in the developing world: A review of their condition". Cross-Cultural Research, 28, 195-224.

Artiles A. J. ( 1992). Teacher thinking and teacher effectiveness during second-grade reading instruction in inner city schools in Guatemala City: An exploratory study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Artiles A. J. ( 1994, March). Assessing teacher cognitions in context: A case study in Guatemala's urban schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society, San Diego, CA.

Artiles A. J. (in press). "Un reto para Guatemala ante el nuevo milenio: Educación para una sociedad multicultural [The challenge to Guatemala for the new millennium: Education for a multicultural society]". La Educación.

Artiles A. J., & Pianta R. C. ( 1993). "Winds of change in Guatemala's educational system". International Journal of Special Education, 8, 1-14.

Artiles A. J., & Trent S. C. ( 1993, July). Strengthening the link between teacher education programs and school systems in Latin America: Equity issues in the implementation of change. Paper presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the International Association of Special Education, University of Vienna, Austria.

-279-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Special Education in Latin America: Experiences and Issues
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 300

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.