The collapse of the USSR weakened the two-century-old Russian/Soviet security complex and paved the way for the creation of the CA security complex. The loosening ties between Central Asia and Russia have contributed to its creation. Central Asia forms a security complex because political, societal, economic, and military/security factors have created a situation in which the national security of every CA state is inseparable from that of other CA states; no state can be stable so long as others face instability. Security concerns link these states together and force them to approach their problems from a regional standpoint and also seek solutions to those problems within a regional context.
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the CA security complex has been in the process of transformation. A major reason for this is that the weaknesses of its member states have made it internally weak and therefore vulnerable to external pressure exercised by foreign powers seeking the domination of Central Asia. Even though these states, with the exception of Tajikistan, enjoy political stability and are not facing serious internal challenges, their enormous economic, societal, and military/security problems make them weak; these problems exhaust their capabilities and thus limit their options.
The CA security complex has tended to remove itself from a Russian-centered security complex, to consider and then reject involvement in a Turkey-oriented complex, and to shift toward an Iran-oriented complex. The major reason for this development has been the activity of the three rival powers--Iran, Turkey, and Russia. The breakup of the USSR severely weakened its successor Russian state and created a power vacuum in many parts of the former Soviet Union. This has