Women's Careers: Pathways and Pitfalls

By Suzanna Rose; Laurie Larwood | Go to book overview

SUMMARY

This chapter has suggested that the interaction of race and sex is a viable, challenging research area that has been generally overlooked in the women and management literature. Arguably, those interested in understanding the status of women in organizations should recognize the study of both race and sex as pivotal in developing and advancing policies and programs to improve that status. The study of black (and other minority) female managers' experiences affords a unique opportunity for understanding the effects of race and gender. The need for research on women in organizations arose from the error of exclusivity-- think manager, think male. Let us not fall prey to the same error by narrowly focusing on sex differences. Research on women in management has generally meant research on white women in organizations. We need to understand that the experience of women in organizations is not monolithic and that we have an obligation to provide career information to black female managers (and for that matter, other minority women) as they proceed on a largely uncharted journey. It is imperative that we understand the status of women in organizations in the larger context defined by the scope of equal employment opportunity laws that prohibit both race and sex discrimination. Clearly the position of white female managers in organizations is affected by the ways in which organizations choose to assign limited opportunities among women and minorities.


REFERENCES

Adams E. F. 1978. "A multivariate study of subordinate perceptions of and attitudes toward minority and majority managers". Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 277-288.

Alderfer C. P., C. Alderfer, L. Tucker, and R. Tucker. 1980. "Diagnosing race relations in management". Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 16, 135-166.

Almquist E. M. 1975. "Untangling the effects of race and sex: The disadvantaged status of black women". Social Science Quarterly, 56, 129-142.

Almquist E. M. 1979. Minorities, gender and work. Lexington, MA. D.C. Heath.

America R. F. and B. Anderson. 1978. Moving Ahead. Black managers in American corporations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ayers-Nachamkin, B., C. Cann, R. Reed, and A. Horne. 1982. "Sex and ethnic differences in the use of power". Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 464-471.

Bartol U. M., C. H. Evans, and M. T. Stith. 1978. "Black versus white leaders: A comparative review of the literature". Academy of Management Review, 3, 293-304.

Benjamin L. 1982. Black women achievers: An isolated elite. Sociological Inquiry, 52, 141-151.

Borjas, G. J. 1983. "The measurement of race and gender wage differentials: Evidence from the federal sector"

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