action to malpractice claims. Male physicians either intellectualized their anger or directed it at their patients. Female physicians spoke about how anger influenced them, as well as their patients' anger and life context. This pattern difference is the result of gender socialization where men are encouraged to express their own anger. Men are not taught to be as alert to others' emotional responses, and they are less likely to allow personal or social issues into their professional lives. Women, in contrast, are taught to be more sensitive to the feelings of others, and this may explain why female physicians are sued at lower rates than males.
In contrast, the stories told by male and female claimants contained marked differences. The men were very cryptic in telling their stories and reported little marginalization. Women, in contrast, provided much greater personal and social context in their stories. Women claimants were generally angrier than the males because they experienced more marginalization during their treatment and their injuries were more severe. Women experienced greater marginalization because they wanted more personal interaction than did the men; the interviews suggest that the women's physicians might have been less likely to treat them as equals. The stories of male and female claimants were also different because there was no one common socialization experience that acted to shape their lives.
In the next chapter, we will examine the views of some experts and their solutions to the "crisis" of medical malpractice claims.