remarks in the literature such as "it was a partisan issue," or "politics
were involved," or "citizens pressured the lawmakers," the question of
who was behind state police legislation has long been a mystery. On the
other hand, most of the works that discuss opposition to the creation of
state police agree that the major, if not the only, obstacle was organized
labor. However, this claim is simply stated and no effort is made to
investigate the components, activities, and ideology of labor opposition.
Was labor unified in its opposition to state police or were there factions
within the labor movement with different ideas and approaches to the
issue? Was labor the only opposition or were there other interest groups
(e.g., farmers, immigrants, or African Americans) that may have been
opposed to the state police? These and other questions concerning
vested interests need to be critically examined if an accurate account of
state police development is to be produced. The following chapters are
intended to provide some answers to these important questions.
U.S. Department of Justice,
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal
Justice Statistics, 1992, edited by
Ann L. Pastore, and
Timothy J. Flanagan
( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993), p. 40.
See Clemens Bartollas, American Criminal Justice: An Introduction ( New York: Macmillan, 1988); John E. Conklin, Criminology, 2nd ed. ( New York: Macmillan, 1986); Don C. Gibbons, Society, Crime, and Criminal Behavior, 5th ed. ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987); Henry W. Mannle and
J. David Hirschel, Fundamentals of Criminology ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988); Robert D. Pursley, Introduction to
Criminal Justice ( New York: Macmillan, 1987); Lawrence F. Travis, Introduction to
Criminal Justice ( Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing, 1990); Lewis Yablonski, Criminology: Crime & Criminality, 4th ed. ( New York: Harper and Row, 1990).
Donald A. Torres, Handbook of State Police, Highway Patrols, and Investigative
Agencies ( Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987).
George T. Felkenes, The Criminal Justice System: Its Functions and Personnel ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973); James A. Inciardi, Criminal Justice ( Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984); Larry J. Siegel, Criminology, 3rd ed. ( St. Paul, MN: West
Publishing, 1989); Ronald J. Waldron, The Criminal Justice System: An Introduction, 4th
ed. ( New York: Harper and Row, 1989); Paul B. Weston and
Kenneth M. Wells, Law
Enforcement and Criminal Justice: An Introduction (Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear, 1972).
Felkenes, The Criminal Justice System; N. Gary Holten and
Melvin E. Jones, The
System of Criminal Justice, 2nd ed. ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1982); Peter C. Kratcoski and Donald B. Walker, Criminal Justice in America: Process and Issues, 2nd ed. ( New York: Random House, 1984); Weston and
Wells, Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.
Sue T. Reid, Criminal Justice, 2nd ed. ( New York: Macmillan, 1990); Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform ( Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1977).
Neil C. Chamelin,
Vernon B. Fox, and
Paul M. Whisenand, Introduction to Criminal
Justice ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975); Inciardi, Criminal Justice.