role they played in state police development. Related questions should focus on the study of the creation and operations of such organizations as the Northwestern Traffic Institute and the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology in Chicago and the National Institute of Public Administration in Washington, D.C., with regard to their role in promoting police reform such as the state police.
A third area of study should focus on social-biographical research of the various prominent individuals who actively worked for passage of state police laws. Individually, studies of writers such as Katherine Mayo and Frederick Van de Water would prove insightful as to the personal reasons for their involvement in the state police movement and provide a window into a segment that was actively seeking major reform of society's police operations. Bruce Smith deserves particular attention as he was one of the foremost proponents of efficient and centralized policing. Biographical analysis of Smith would illuminate many issues, people, and agencies involved in working for police reform. Study of the prominent superintendents such as John C. Groome of Pennsylvania, George Olander of New York, and Oscar Olander of Michigan would provide insights into the backgrounds of the men who shaped the early state police forces. Finally, we also need to know what kind of men became state police officers: What were their backgrounds, training, and attitudes toward their job?
Fourth, although much remains to be done concerning the origins and development of the state police, questions of actual enforcement activity are of equal if not greater importance. To understand fully the role of the state police in the overall police system, it is necessary to discern what it was these agencies did once they were established. Did state police provide improved crime control in rural areas? Were they used extensively against labor to break strikes? Did cooperation among the different levels of police improve, or was there open hostility on the part of local officials? Was the problem of differential enforcement of certain laws eliminated? Whose interests were actually served by the operation of the state police? These and other issues concerning the actual operation of the state police need to be studied in order to assess the overall impact state police had on social order.
To aid those interested in pursuing research into the origins or operations of the early state police forces in the United States, I have included a bibliography of all sources on the state police uncovered during my research for this book.
Corcoran Margaret M. "State Police in the United States: A Bibliography." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 14 ( 1924): 544-555.
Indiana. Bureau of Legislative Information. "Summary of Statutory Provisions of the Various States in Regard to State Police." Indianapolis, 1913.
Lambert June. "Digest of the Laws of the Various States Relating to State Police." Albany, NY: New York State Library, Legislative Reference Section, 1929.
Library of Congress. Division of Bibliography. "List of References on State Police and Similar Law Enforcing Organizations." Washington, DC, 1923.
Rhode Island State Library. Legislative Reference Bureau. "Digest of Legislation in the Several States Relating to State Police and State Departments of Public Safety." Providence, 1923.