Organizational Politics, Justice, and Support: Managing the Social Climate of the Workplace

By Russell S. Cropanzano; K. Michele Kacmar | Go to book overview

10
Procedural Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Hypothesized Effects on Job Performance

Peter M. Fasolo


INTRODUCTION

Research on fairness perceptions has identified two predominant dimensions. Early work focused on individuals' perceptions of fair outcomes. Adams ( 1963, 1965) theory of equity and later reformulations ( Walster, Walster, & Berscheid, 1978) demonstrated that individuals focus on outcomes (e.g., pay) relative to other people when assessing the fairness of a situation. More recently, researchers have studied procedural justice--the perceived fairness of the procedures used to determine the outcomes ( Lind & Tyler, 1988). Procedural justice has been studied in dispute resolution ( Conlon & Fasolo, 1990), performance appraisals ( Kanfer, Sawyer, Early, & Lind, 1987; Greenberg, 1987), interview judgments ( Bies & Moag, 1986), assessments of organizational commitment ( Folger & Konovsky, 1989), drug testing ( Konovsky & Cropanzano, 1991) and reactions to layoff decisions ( Brockner, DeWitt, Grover, & Reed, 1990).

Researchers have identified several factors that contribute to procedural fairness perceptions. Thibaut and Walker ( 1975, 1978) have demonstrated in numerous studies that subjects who are not allowed to present evidence on their behalf in a trial view the procedure as less fair than subjects given this opportunity, regardless of receiving an innocent or guilty verdict. This opportunity for process control or "voice" is very important to perceptions of procedural justice. For example, researchers have illustrated that subjects who are allowed greater amounts of participation and voice view the evaluation procedures as more fair than subjects denied this opportunity, irrespective of the outcome received ( Early, 1984; Kanfer et al., 1987). Leventhal ( 1980) argues that procedures are perceived as fair when they

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