Presidential Power and Management Techniques: The Carter and Reagan Administrations in Historical Perspective

By James G. Benze Jr. | Go to book overview

policy type. It was thought that because deregulation was directed primarily at agencies involved in regulatory policy, their program evaluations would differ greatly from the other agencies in the study, and a significant relationship would be found between the evaluations of deregulation and policy type. However, the data indicate that this is not the case. There are two possible explanations for this lack of relationship. First, the number of regulatory agencies in the sample is very small (only 13 percent of the responses), and it may be that the cross-section of regulatory agencies that was surveyed was not large enough to form a statistically significant relationship. However, a second, more likely explanation relates to the evaluations of the deregulation program. The overall evaluations were mostly middle range--neither strongly positive nor negative. It was hypothesized that a significant finding concerning the regulatory agencies might be buried in the data. The findings indicated by the correlations in Table 21 indicate that this is probably not the case. It might be that the critics of deregulation are correct--the administration has not devoted enough time or resources to the program to create a significant impact even within the regulatory agencies. Thus, if deregulation is to take place, it seems more likely to come through the use of political appointees or through budgeting, not Executive Order 12,291. There is little evidence in the survey that regulatory relief has significantly affected the regulatory processes of the federal bureaucracy.


SUMMARY

In this review of the survey results, the importance of leadership for successful presidential management of the policy process has become evident. Examining the correlations between the bureaucratic evaluations of specific administrative techniques applied in the Carter and Reagan administrations and the evaluations of presidential skills has demonstrated an important explanation for the varying degrees of success of the Carter and Reagan management programs.

The administrative model employed by the Carter administration floundered at least partially because of a perceived lack of leadership on Carter's part. This is especially true with regard to one of the key features of the Carter management program--zero base

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Presidential Power and Management Techniques: The Carter and Reagan Administrations in Historical Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Political Science Series Editor: Bernard K. Johnpoll ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 4
  • 1 - Presidential Power and Presidential Management 5
  • Summary 13
  • Notes 14
  • 2 - The Origins of Presidential Management 17
  • Summary 28
  • Notes 29
  • 3 - The History of Management Techniques 31
  • Summary 50
  • Notes 50
  • 4 - Management in the Carter Administration 55
  • Summary 72
  • SUMMARY 72
  • 5 - Management in the Reagan Administration 77
  • Notes 94
  • 6 - An Empirical Investigation of Presidential Management 97
  • Summary 113
  • Notes 114
  • 7 - The Limits of Management Techniques and the Importance of Presidential Leadership 117
  • Summary 133
  • Notes 134
  • Conclusion: The Future of Presidential Management 137
  • Bibliography 143
  • Notes on Methodology 149
  • Index 153
  • About the Author 159
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