lower end of the scoring as well. Meta-analytic reviews usually fail to consider these,
range differences but concentrate on means.
Studies of lesbians are relatively rare due to their small proportion in the general
Diamond 1993a) and their comparatively more frequent reluctance to volunteer for such studies.
Fish and other nonmammalian vertebrate species are, in contrast, more definitely
and dramatically influenced by environmental factors in their sexual development. See Diamond ( 1993a, 1994b) and Francis ( 1992).
Organization is a technical term used in embryology. It implies that the nervous
system is programmed during pregnancy for activation later in life, usually starting at
Masculinization and feminization are not opposite ends of a continuum. They are
two separate dimensions of gender patterns and mechanisms.
The mediation of these early endocrine influences is only briefly indicated here.
The mode of action of different gonadal products, their metabolites or aromatized forms,
in this process of sexual differentiation, development, or partner selection is noteworthy
and should be appreciated. See, for example,
Olsen ( 1993) and the other sources indicated
in this section for an in-depth analysis.
It is true that these individuals, reared as males, as well as some of those from the
earlier reports, can be said to be responding to environmental factors in "adopting" a
homosexual orientation. However, the majority of such XX persons are not reared as
The inability to utilize testosterone is due to a genetically transmitted enzyme
deficiency that prevents the body tissues from responding to the androgen.
The exact mechanism of this phenomenon is still being elucidated. It may be that
at puberty the genital tissues become responsive to the circulating testosterone or levels
of dihydrotestosterone increase. The full issue of in utero and pubertal sexual differentiation in these individuals is reviewed by
McGinley ( 1983).
Indeed, it may be because the incidence of homosexuality is so low in these
societies that they are more tolerant of the practice. The chicken-and-egg question persists.
Unquestionably, fear of imprisonment or other severe punishment can induce an
individual to avoid certain preferred behaviors or adopt nonpreferred ones. Here, however, we are considering instances where open choice is available and extreme conditions
are not at issue.
Pfaff D., &
Goy R. W. ( 1985). Handbook of behavioral neurobiology. New
York: Plenum Press.
Allen L. S., &
Gorski R. A. ( 1987). "Sex differences in the human massa intermedia". Society of Neurosciences Abstracts, 13, 46.
Allen L. S., &
Gorski R. A. ( 1990). "Sex differences in the bed nucleus of the stria
terminalis of the human brain". Journal of Comparative Neurology, 302, 697-706.
Allen L. S., &
Gorski R. A. ( 1991). "Sexual dimorphism of the anterior commissure and
massa intermedia of the human brain". Journal of Comparative Neurology, 312, 97-104.