The Psychology of Sexual Orientation, Behavior, and Identity: A Handbook

By Louis Diamant; Richard D. McAnulty | Go to book overview
lower end of the scoring as well. Meta-analytic reviews usually fail to consider these, range differences but concentrate on means.
17.
Studies of lesbians are relatively rare due to their small proportion in the general population ( Diamond 1993a) and their comparatively more frequent reluctance to volunteer for such studies.
18.
Fish and other nonmammalian vertebrate species are, in contrast, more definitely and dramatically influenced by environmental factors in their sexual development. See Diamond ( 1993a, 1994b) and Francis ( 1992).
19.
Organization is a technical term used in embryology. It implies that the nervous system is programmed during pregnancy for activation later in life, usually starting at puberty.
20.
Masculinization and feminization are not opposite ends of a continuum. They are two separate dimensions of gender patterns and mechanisms.
21.
The mediation of these early endocrine influences is only briefly indicated here. The mode of action of different gonadal products, their metabolites or aromatized forms, in this process of sexual differentiation, development, or partner selection is noteworthy and should be appreciated. See, for example, Olsen ( 1993) and the other sources indicated in this section for an in-depth analysis.
22.
It is true that these individuals, reared as males, as well as some of those from the earlier reports, can be said to be responding to environmental factors in "adopting" a homosexual orientation. However, the majority of such XX persons are not reared as males.
23.
The inability to utilize testosterone is due to a genetically transmitted enzyme deficiency that prevents the body tissues from responding to the androgen.
24.
The exact mechanism of this phenomenon is still being elucidated. It may be that at puberty the genital tissues become responsive to the circulating testosterone or levels of dihydrotestosterone increase. The full issue of in utero and pubertal sexual differentiation in these individuals is reviewed by Imperato- McGinley ( 1983).
25.
Indeed, it may be because the incidence of homosexuality is so low in these societies that they are more tolerant of the practice. The chicken-and-egg question persists.
26.
Unquestionably, fear of imprisonment or other severe punishment can induce an individual to avoid certain preferred behaviors or adopt nonpreferred ones. Here, however, we are considering instances where open choice is available and extreme conditions are not at issue.

REFERENCES

Adler N., Pfaff D., & Goy R. W. ( 1985). Handbook of behavioral neurobiology. New York: Plenum Press.

Allen L. S., & Gorski R. A. ( 1987). "Sex differences in the human massa intermedia". Society of Neurosciences Abstracts, 13, 46.

Allen L. S., & Gorski R. A. ( 1990). "Sex differences in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the human brain". Journal of Comparative Neurology, 302, 697-706.

Allen L. S., & Gorski R. A. ( 1991). "Sexual dimorphism of the anterior commissure and massa intermedia of the human brain". Journal of Comparative Neurology, 312, 97-104.

-69-

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