Sex Differences in Political Participation: Processes of Change in Fourteen Nations

By Carol A. Christy | Go to book overview

in this study, such as the unique cultural and political forces that mobilize voters.

Partial and multiple correlations and multiple regression analysis support the general findings presented in these tables. In fact, economic development is more likely to wash out when the other variables are controlled than the other way around. However, the correlation is quite strong between development and certain intervening variables, such as sex differences in political interest and organizational activity. Therefore, tracing the causal relationships between these variables in other types of data is vital.

Taken alone, cross-national variations in sex differences are an insufficient test of the three models. The positive correlation between development and smaller sex differences may be unique to this group of nations, or it may be spurious, reflecting some underlying cause. For example, in Europe Protestantism may have once spurred both economic development and more egalitarian gender roles, but development in itself may not have increased sexual equality. In Chapter 3 the models will be tested further by comparing groups within nations.


Notes
1.
The precise measures of the indicators and procedures for constructing the index are discussed in Appendix C.
2.
Living costs, of course, are lower in smaller households. More women than men live alone, but also more women head households with children. Thus it cannot be said that women as a group need less money than men because their households are smaller.
3.
Incidentally, this Nigerian example contradicts one hypothesis presented in Chapter 1, namely, that communally based politics maintain the subordination of women because the harmony of communal groups depends on traditional gender roles.
4.
Pearsons's r. Appendix C details the methodology.
5.
Note, however, that sex segregation in parties may lessen women's influence on party policy ( Aviel 1981).
6.
Lovenduski reports that a recent survey of the European Economic Community (EEC) nations found women slightly more willing to engage in public demonstrations ( 1986, p. 127). Perhaps the term "public demonstration" has less negative connotations to women than the various types of protest activities examined here.

-66-

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Sex Differences in Political Participation: Processes of Change in Fourteen Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - Cross-National Variations 35
  • Notes 66
  • 3 - Within-Nation Variations 67
  • Notes 93
  • 4 - Temporal Variations 95
  • Notes 112
  • 5 - Conclusion 115
  • Appendix A The Surveys 123
  • Appendix B The Intervening and Dependent Variables 127
  • Appendix C The Independent Variables 133
  • Appendix D Sex Differences in Political Participation 139
  • References and Bibliography 155
  • Index 179
  • About the Author 193
  • Series Editors' Sketches 195
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