Sex Differences in Political Participation: Processes of Change in Fourteen Nations

By Carol A. Christy | Go to book overview

4
Temporal Variations

Each of the three models predicts distinct trends in sex differences in political participation. According to the development and generational models, sex differences should diminish steadily, because economic development and generational turnover proceed at a regular pace. Moreover, controlling for the economic and demographic changes should eliminate temporal variations. The diffusion model accommodates more irregular changes, which vary by group. Since the young, better-educated, and urban are more receptive to change than older, lower status and rural people, the diffusion model predicts that differences between these groups will widen initially, then narrow.

However, the two preceding chapters have suggested that changes over time are more complex, depending, for instance, on the type of political participation and the level of development. In this chapter trend data will be used to test the hypothesized refinements. Data are available for only two nations (the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany) and two types of political participation (communications and electoral activities). (The appendices describe the surveys and measures of the variables.) However, fragmentary information from other nations ( Christy 1980) indicates that the trends presented here are fairly representative of first world nations.

____________________
This chapter revises and updates my article published in Comparative Political Studies ( April, 1985). Thanks to Sage Publications for permission to reproduce the figures presented in the article.

-95-

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Sex Differences in Political Participation: Processes of Change in Fourteen Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - Cross-National Variations 35
  • Notes 66
  • 3 - Within-Nation Variations 67
  • Notes 93
  • 4 - Temporal Variations 95
  • Notes 112
  • 5 - Conclusion 115
  • Appendix A The Surveys 123
  • Appendix B The Intervening and Dependent Variables 127
  • Appendix C The Independent Variables 133
  • Appendix D Sex Differences in Political Participation 139
  • References and Bibliography 155
  • Index 179
  • About the Author 193
  • Series Editors' Sketches 195
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