had been founded in 1532 when the Portuguese, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa, drove French settlers from the coast. The crown sought to consolidate further its hold on the land and to spur settlement by granting its use to Portuguese entrepreneurs (donatários), but most of the economic ventures failed except for the sugar plantations established in northeastern Pernambuco. In the rest of Brazil, the frontier was too remote for Lisbon to control, and as a result it became a cauldron of people--prospectors, fortune hunters, runaway communities of escaped African slaves, gypsies, New Christians, and other fugitives. As late as 1790, even those in the ruling administrative class who were not Portuguese born still considered themselves primarily Portuguese. The inhabitants of Brazil were seen as members of separate ethnic and economic groups--Indians, black slaves, free blacks, mulattos, caboclos (mixtures of Indians, Africans, and Caucasians), newcomers (mostly Portuguese peasants), and members of "good families," as they were called, the upper-class elite. Men and women of high birth but born in Brazil held lower status than the Portuguese-born officials sent by the crown, but the angry creole-peninsular division that existed in the Spanish American colonies was less strongly felt in Brazil. Still, some residents of Brazil, merchants as well as intellectuals aware of the American and French revolutions, began to think about separation from Portugal. This did not mean that a Brazilian national identity had yet developed. Still, when events in Europe during the first decade of the nineteenth century forced colonial elites to decide on their loyalties, the sense of being Brazilian developed quite quickly.


NOTES
1.
Betty Mindlin and Suruí narrators, Unwritten Stories of the Suruí Indians of Rondônia ( Austin: Institute of Latin American Studies), 65.
2.
Dauril Alden, "Late Colonial Brazil," in Leslie Bethell, ed., Cambridge History of Latin America, Vol. II. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 612.
3.
Pero Vaz de Caminha, account to King Manoel, quoted by Francisco Maria Pires Teixeira , História Concisa do Brasil ( São Paulo: Global, 1993), 24.
4.
Bailey W. Diffie, A History of Colonial Brazil, 1500-1792 (Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger, 1987), 230-31.
5.
Anonymous source cited by Diffie, 242.
6.
Father Gouveia, 1627 letter in the Arquivo Nacional Torre do

-52-

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The History of Brazil
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Advisory Board ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Timeline of Historical Events xv
  • 1 - An Earthly Paradise 1
  • Notes 29
  • 2 - Early Brazil (1500-1822) 31
  • Notes 52
  • 3 - Independence and Empire (1822-1889) 55
  • Notes 76
  • 4 - The Republic (1889-1930) 77
  • Note 96
  • 5 - The Vargas Era (1930-1954) 97
  • Notes 119
  • 6 - Dictatorship and Democracy (1954-1998) 121
  • Notes 144
  • 7 - Political Culture 147
  • Notes 166
  • 8 - Social and Economic Realities 167
  • Notes 183
  • Notable People in the History of Brazil 185
  • Bibliographic Essay 195
  • Index 203
  • About the Author 209
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