I am indebted to the works of more scholars of economics and history than it is possible to list. Above all, the writings of Frank W. Fetter, William D. Grampp, Wesley C. Mitchell, and Piero Sraffa were invaluable to me as sources of information and models of scholarship. Boyd Hilton Corn, Cash, Commerce ( Oxford University Press, 1977) and Barry Gordon Political Economy in Parliament ( London: Macmillan, 1976) provided historical guidance of inestimable value. E. K. Hunt, Roger Ransom, and Carl G. Uhr, who read drafts of this manuscript, provided very useful guidance and comments. Gary Evans, Mayo Toruno, and Manuel Navarro, who were always available for discussion, support, and friendship, are due special thanks. I alone am responsible for any errors, omissions, or distortions of fact.