"soon be necessary even for a private individual to understand [political economy] before he can lay claim to the character of an instructed man." 7
The ideas that clustered most conspicuously around the banner of political economy in the postwar years survived and thrived as well, settling, as Bagehot remarked, into "the common sense of the nation." Once raised they became, as Alfred Marshall described them, like a "yeast ceaselessly working in the Cosmos."8 What certainly triumphed was the belief that "the desire to better one's condition" allied with the application of the "principle of liberty" to economic policymaking explained Britain's phenomenal economic successes. For generations of students and laymen alike, this was the message of political economy.