by keeping abreast of the literature, IRT is unlikely to be learned this way. Learning IRT outside a graduate course environment would be comparable to learning statistics on one's own. The available textbooks are difficult to read unless part of a course, and the principles are not mastered without working through examples.

Certainly the new generation of testing experts can and should learn IRT as part of regular graduate coursework. In educational graduate programs, for example, IRT courses are often available. In psychology graduate programs, in which the measurement curriculum has been much weaker than in education in recent years, IRT is making some inroads. But perhaps even the "old" generation of testing experts will learn IRT principles. Perhaps a new generation of IRT textbooks, IRT workshops, and user-friendly IRT computer programs will provide the needed incentives.


REFERENCES

Andrich D. ( 1982). An index of person separation in latent trait theory, the traditional KR 20 index and the Guttman scale response pattern. Educational Research and Perspectives, 9, 95-104.

Andrich D. ( 1988). Rasch models for measurement. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishers.

Angoff W. ( 1982). "Summary and derivation of equating methods used at ETS". In P. Holland , & D. Rubin (Eds.), Test equating. New York: Academic Press.

Davison M., & Sharma A. R. ( 1990). "Parametric statistics and levels of measurement: Factorial designs and multiple regression". Psychological Bulletin, 107, 394-400.

Embretson S. E. ( 1995, August). The new rules of measurement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.

Embretson S. E., & Reise S. R. (in press). Item response theory for psychologists. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fischer G. ( 1995). "Derivations of the Rasch model". In G. Fischer & I. Molenaar (Eds.), Rasch models: Foundations, recent developments, and applications. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Guilford J. P. ( 1954). Psychometric methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gulliksen H. ( 1950), Theory of mental tests. New York: Wiley.

Hambleton R. K., & van der W. Linden ( 1996). Handbook of modern item response theory. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Holland P., & Rubin D. ( 1982). Test equating. New York: Academic Press.

Jones L. V. ( 1971). "The nature of measurement". In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational Measurement. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

Lord F. ( 1952). "A theory of test scores". Psychometric Monographs, no. 1.

Lord F. ( 1980). Applications of item response theory to practical testing problems. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lord F., & Novick M. ( 1968). Statistical theories of mental tests. New York: Addison- Wesley.

Michel J. ( 1990). An introduction to the logic of psychological measurement. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Peterson N., Marco. G., & Steward E. ( 1982). A test of the adequacy of linear score

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