lection instruments including cognitive tests with varied content and method of administration, psychomotor tests, specific job knowledge tests, interviews, reaction time, and neural conductive velocity measured g. Further, the validity of these measures for predicting training and job performance comes, in part or wholly, from g. As Brand ( 1987) observed: "g is to psychology as carbon is to chemistry" (p. 257).

The major implication from these studies is that all research on the development of new predictors of training performance, job performance, or other occupational criteria should include measures of general cognitive ability. The uniqueness of the predictors beyond g and, when appropriate, their incremental validity beyond g should be investigated. Whenever possible, the reliability of the measures should be investigated, and samples should be corrected for the effects of range restriction. The use of corrections for unreliability and for range restriction and the use of unrotated principal components, unrotated principal factors, or residualized scores from hierarchical factor analysis is essential to avoid erroneous conclusions about what is being measured.

Additionally, the utility of g and specific predictors should be estimated in terms of cost (e.g., cost to collect measures versus training cost avoidance) where applicable or in terms of increases in expected job performance ( Duke & Ree, 1996; Schmidt, 1988). The increments to g, although statistically small, could have large utility under specific large sample conditions. In any case, the utility of g as a predictor of job performance is assured. Finally, these results should not be construed to imply that g is the only construct worth investigating. Clearly, McHenry et al. ( 1990) showed that personality and temperament measures can predict certain job-related criteria such as "effort and leadership," "personal discipline," and "physical fitness and military bearing." However, for predicting training success, hands-on job performance, and other occupational criteria, not much more than g is needed.


NOTES

The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States government.

1.
Residualization is also appropriate for noncognitive measures that have a hierarchical structure.
2.
The ASVAB is the enlistment qualification test battery for the U.S. military.
3.
This study was conducted by Suzzane Fenske and Malcolm Ree and has been submitted for publication review.
4.
The BAT contains tests in addition to the psychomotor.

REFERENCES

Besetsny L., Earles J. A., & Ree M. J. ( 1993). "Little incremental validity for a special test of abstract symbolic reasoning in an air force intelligence career field". Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 507-511.

-78-

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