lationship to one another in order to illustrate the quality of schooling, instruction, and placement of students.

Second, we need to overcome the reluctance of school psychologists, administrators, teachers, and other support personnel to learn how to employ new tools and skills in the areas of assessment and instructional development.

Third, we must persuade all participants in the educational process to evaluate students based on the skills they have mastered rather than a student's class ranking or grades.

Fourth, we need to focus on the daily performance of each student as well as his or her long-term potential.

Fifth, we must recognize that the information obtained via continuous assessment by school personnel is just as relevant and germane to the student's placement and instruction as the annual year-end measure of student achievement and school performance.

These five recommendations will take time and resources to implement successfully. Training, demonstration, and leadership will promote more appropriate assessment and instruction and ultimately improve student performance.

The inappropriate use of standardized tests and CBA will undermine services and support for children and youths with disabilities. It is time to become more knowledgeable about the benefits and drawbacks of each assessment procedure. Students, families, and policy makers must be assured that the assessment of choice effectively interfaces with classroom materials, instructional strategies, and student performance within and outside the school's perimeter.


REFERENCES

Allen D. ( 1989). "Periodic and annual reviews and decisions to terminate special education services". In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), Curriculum based measurement: Assessing special children (pp. 184-203). New York: Guilford.

Bain S. K., & Garlock J. W. ( 1992). "Cross-validation of Criterion-Related Validity for CBM reading passages". Diagnostique, 17, 202-208.

Blankenship C. S. ( 1985). "Linking assessment to curriculum and instruction". In J. F. Cawley (Ed.), Practical mathematics: Appraisal of the learning disabled (pp. 59- 79). Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems Corporation.

Board of Education v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 ( 1982).

Brandon J. I. ( 1988). "Alternative educational delivery approaches: Implications for school psychology". In J. L. Graden, J. E. Zins, & M. C. Curtis (Eds.), Alternative educational delivery systems: Enhancing instructional options for all students (pp. 563-571). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

Cantor A. ( 1991). "Effective psychological services for all students: A data based model of service delivery". In G. Stoner & M. R. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 49-78). Silver Springs, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Deno S. L., Marston D., Shinn M. R., & Tindal G. ( 1983). "Oral reading fluency: A simple datum for scaling reading disabilities". Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities, 2, 53-59.

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