matter of "getting there from here." It requires a judicial evaluation of
what "here" is, anticipating the problems likely to arise in changing the
aspects of "here" that need changing, and constantly trying to communicate and reinforce the culture we visualize for the firm, the one over
Ingraining is a slow, evolutionary process and one cannot expect quick
results. A preoccupation with customer needs is not likely to appear
overnight in a firm which hitherto had been most concerned about production convenience and efficiency. The various aspects of SHARE,
moreover, are slow-acting remedies whose results will take time to make
themselves apparent. Meanwhile, the organization has to exist and, hopefully, continue to improve its performance. Firms that are embarked on
the INroad to value, however, must find out what, if any, progress they
have made and where they presently are. In the next chapter we lay out
a variety of milestones to serve this purpose.
For a fascinating account of the quantum quandary see
Michio Kaku and Jennifer Trainer, Beyond Einstein: The Cosmic Quest for the Theory of the Universe ( Toronto: Bantam, 1987), pp. 40-60.
Michael Talbot Beyond the Quantum ( Toronto: Bantam, 1988) argues that
the universe itself is a "super hologram" and develops hypotheses of interconnectedness among living and inanimate things, past, present, future.
This distinction is emphasized by
David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order ( London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981).
Our definition of culture is based upon Edgar Schein ( Organizational
Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985, pp., 5-21) perspective.
We have focused our attention on what Schein refers to as the Level 2 of culture
(values) since we feel Level 1 (artifacts) is too mundane in nature and Level 3
(assumptions) too abstract. See also
Bernard Arogyaswamy and
Charles Byles "Organizational Culture: Internal and External Fits," Journal of Management, 1987, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 647-59.
Bernard Arogyaswamy and
Charles Byles, "Organizational Culture: Internal and External Fits," Journal of Management, 1987, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 647-
Arthur Sharplin, "The Lincoln Electric Company," in
John Montanari, Cyril Morgan and
Jeffrey Blacker Strategic Management ( Chicago: Dryden, 1990), pp. 807-20, and Quality, August 1983, pp. 14-15. While both cited pieces,
as do most material on Lincoln Electric, emphasize the incentive system, the
parallel evolution of mutual respect and recognition among hierarchic levels stands
out as an equally plausible explanatory factor for Lincoln's success.
Buck Rogers. The IBM Way ( New York: Harper & Row, 1987).
Gary Jacobson and
John Hillkirk. Xerox: American Samurai ( New York: Collier, 1986, pp. 247-48).
Taiichi Ohno, Toyota's manufacturing chief for many years, said his ob-