Francis M. Rogers, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University; Manoel da Silveira
Cardozo, Professor Emeritus, Catholic University of America; Peter A. Munch, Professor Emeritus, Southern Illinois University; Lawrence J. McCaffrey of Loyola University of Chicago; Michael B. Petrovich of the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Joel Halpern of the University of Massachusetts. I also wish
to acknowledge the commitment of the late Donn V. Hart of Northern Illinois
University who had undertaken the work on the Filipino press.
For general encouragement, help in copyediting, and assistance in the detailed
work on footnoting format and bibliographic citations, I extend my warm thanks
to Michele M. Ennis of Palo Alto, California.
That this collection is dedicated to the memory of my mother is not pro forma
but rather highly appropriate. It is fitting that a book on this subject be dedicated
to her because her experiences with the ethnic press reflect a thesis in these
chapters. She was born Chaiya Narshen in 1905 in the stetl of Koristashow near Kiev. She grew up as Clara Nixon on the West Side of Chicago, where she
observed the adults in the neighborhood reading the Jewish Daily Forward. But
she, as an adult and until her death in 1984, chose to read Chicago's metropolitan
dailies. Her life mirrored some of what follows.
See the following works: Robert E. Park, The Immigrant Press and Its Control
( New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1922); Jerzy Zubrzycki, "The Role of the
Foreign-Language Press in Migrant Integration," Population Studies 12 ( 1958); 73-82; Joshua A. Fishman,
Robert G. Hayden, and
Mary E. Warshauer, "The Non-English and
the Ethnic Group Press, 1910-1960," Joshua A. Fishman et al., Language Loyalty in
the United States: The Maintenance and Perpetuation of Non-English Mother Tongues
by American Ethnic and Religious Groups ( The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1966), pp. 51- 74; Edward Hunter, In Many Voices: Our Fabulous Foreign-Language Press ( Norman
Park, Ga.: Norman College, n.d); Lubomyr R. Wynar and
Anna T. Wynar Encyclopedic
Directory of Ethnic Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States, 2nd ed. ( Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1976); Hensley C. Woodbridge, "United States and Canadian
National Bibliography: Foreign Languages," Encyclopedia of Library and Information
Science 36, Supp. 1 ( 1983); 516-574; "The Ethnic Press: Many Voices," Spectrum
( Immigration History Research Center) 3 ( March 1980): 1-2.
See the introduction to the theme issue on the ethnic press of Polyphony ( Bulletin
of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario) 4 (Spring/Summer 1982): 7-9, by editor Robert F. Harney.
Wynar, Encyclopedic Directory, pp. 14-15, 17.
Woodbridge, "United States and Canadian National Bibliography," p. 521; Park, Immigrant Press, pp. 295-296, 305, 313; Zubrzycki, "Role of the Foreign-Language
Press," p. 76; see also Wynar and
Wynar, Encyclopedic Directory, pp. 17-18, 21 for
a summary of a variety of extant statistics.
Raymond A. Mohl, "Cubans in Miami: A Preliminary Bibliography," The
Immigration History Newsletter 16 ( May 1984): 1-2. Immigration statistics show that
8.7 million people entered the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century
and 4.5 million in the 1970s.